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E. C. Spiker

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An area of fine-grained sediment approximately 170 km x 74 km in size, located in water depths between 60 m and 150 m, south of Martha's Vineyard, Mass., is a site of modern sediment deposition. The 14C ages systematically increase with sediment depth from about 1,300 years B.P. at the surface to 8,000-10,000 years B.P. at the depth of maximum core penetration. The old age for the surface sediments probably results from a combination of deposition of old carbon and faunal mixing. In the finest sediments, the sedimentation rates were approximately 130 cm/1,000 yrs when deposition began and have decreased to about 25 cm/1,000 yrs. The decreasing sedimentation rate reflects a diminishing source of fine sediments, which...
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Three beds of manganese oxide ore in a 10 m-thick dolomite unit are associated with diagenetic features, and, are accordingly also diagenetic in their present aspect. Whether primary or introduced, the Mn mineralogy is attributed to reactions between fresh and saline ground-waters as the zone of mixing passed through the dolomite unit during a period of falling sea-level. The succession of diagenetic changes is: 1) precursor carbonates, 2) dolomite-janggunite, 3) hollandite-pyrolusite-chert-calcite.-G.J.N.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Economic Geology
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Massive polymetallic sulfides are currently being deposited around active submarine hydrothermal vents associated with spreading centers. Chemoautolithotrophic bacteria are responsible for the high production of organic matter also associated with modern submarine hydrothermal activity. Thus, there is a significant potential for organic matter/metal interactions in these systems. We have studied modern and ancient hydrothermal metal ores and modern hydrothermal fluids in order to establish the amounts and origin of the organic matter associated with the metal ores. Twenty-six samples from modern and ancient hydrothermal systems were surveyed for their total organic C contents. Organic C values ranged from 0.01%...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Applied Geochemistry
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We examined concentrations and sulfur isotopic ratios (34S/32S, expressed as ??34S in parts per thousand [???] units) of sulfate in surface water, ground water, and rain water from sites throughout the northern Everglades to establish the sources of sulfur to the ecosystem. The geochemistry of sulfur is of particular interest in the Everglades because of its link, through processes mediated by sulfate -reducing bacteria, to the production of toxic methylmercury in this wetland ecosystem. Methylmercury, a neurotoxin that is bioaccumulated, has been found in high concentrations in freshwater fish from the Everglades, and poses a potential threat to fish-eating wildlife and to human health through fish consumption....
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