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F.A. Packard

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Miocene basaltic aquifers are the source of domestic and municipal water, and about 20,000 acre-feet of irrigation water annually, in the Horse Heaven Hills in south-central Washington State. Groundwater chemical variations derive from the hydraulic characteristics is of the geohydrologic system, from groundwater basalt reactions, and from irrigation. Some dissolved species concentrations increase with residence time; others decrease. Recharge area groundwaters are calcium magnesium sodium bicarbonate waters with sodium-adsorption ratios (SAR's) less than 1.0. They evolve to sodium potassium bicarbonate waters with SAR 's as high as 17. Glassy and cryptocrystalline phases of the basalt are the main sources of dissolved...
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Drainage from abandoned coal mines in western and central Washington has minimal environmental impact. Water quality characteristics that have the most significant environmental impact are suspended sediment and turbidity. Water quality data from 51 abandoned coal mines representing 11 major coal bearing areas indicate that less than 1% of the mine drainage has a pH of 4.5 or less. Fifty percent of the drainage is alkaline and has pH 7.0 and greater, and about 95% of the drainage has pH 6.0 and greater. Less than 2% is acidified to a pH of 5.6, a point where water and free (atmospheric) carbon dioxide are in equilibrium. The area where pH 5.6 or less is most likely to occur is in the Centralia/Chehalis mine district....
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To ensure continued confidence in its products, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey implemented a policy that all its scientific work be performed in accordance with a centrally managed quality-assurance program. This report establishes and documents a formal policy for current (1995) quality assurance within the Idaho District of the U.S. Geological Survey. Quality assurance is formalized by describing district organization and operational responsibilities, documenting the district quality-assurance policies, and describing district functions. The districts conducts its work through offices in Boise, Idaho Falls, Twin Falls, Sandpoint, and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Data-collection...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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