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G.S. Puniwai

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Kilauea volcano began to erupt on September 13, 1977, after a 21.5-month period of quiescence. Harmonic tremor in the upper and central east rift zone and rapid deflation of the summit area occurred for 22 hours before the outbreak of surface activity. On the first night, spatter ramparts formed along a discontinuous, en-echelon, 5.5-km-long fissure system that trends N70??E between two prehistoric cones, Kalalua and Puu Kauka. Activity soon became concentrated at a central vent that erupted sporadically until September 23 and extruded flows that moved a maximum distance of 2.5 km to the east. On September 18, new spatter ramparts began forming west of Kalalua, extending to 7 km the length of the new vent system....
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Following a 22-month hiatus in eruptive activity, Kilauea volcano extruded roughly 35 ?? 106 m3 of tholeiitic basalt from vents along its middle east rift zone during 13 September-1 October, 1977. The lengthy prelude to this eruption began with a magnitude 7.2 earthquake on 29 November, 1975, and included rapid summit deflation episodes in June, July, and August 1976 and February 1977. Synthesis of seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, and electrical self-potential observations suggests the following model for this atypical Kilauea eruptive cycle. Rapid summit deflation initiated by the November 1975 earthquake reflected substantial migration of magma from beneath the summit region of Kilauea into the east and southwest...
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