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Paul E. Grams

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In river valleys, fluvial and upland landscapes are intrinsically linked through sediment exchange between the active channel, near-channel fluvial deposits, and higher elevation upland deposits. During floods, sediment is transferred from channels to low-elevation nearchannel deposits [Schmidt and Rubin, 1995]. Particularly in dryland river valleys, subsequent aeolian reworking of these flood deposits redistributes sediment to higher elevation upland sites, thus maintaining naturallyoccurring aeolian landscapes [Draut, 2012].
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Three large-scale field experiments were conducted on the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam in 1996, 2004, and 2008 to evaluate whether artificial (that is, controlled) floods released from the dam could be used in conjunction with the sand supplied by downstream tributaries to rebuild and sustainably maintain eddy sandbars in the river in Grand Canyon National Park. Higher suspended-sand concentrations during a controlled flood will lead to greater eddy-sandbar deposition rates. During each controlled flood experiment, sediment-transport and bed-sediment data were collected to evaluate sediment-supply effects on sandbar deposition. Data collection substantially increased in spatial and temporal density...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Alluvial sandbars occur in lateral recirculation zones (eddies) along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park (Schmidt, 1990). Resource managers periodically release controlled floods from the upstream Glen Canyon Dam to rebuild these bars (Grams et al., 2015), which erode during fluctuating dam releases, and by hillslope runoff and wind deflation (Hazel et al., 2010). Because the dam blocks upstream sediment, episodic floods from tributaries provide the only supply to replace eroded sand; and much of this sand originates from a single tributary (Topping et al., 2000). Here, we present new evidence for the downstream translation of the sand component of these sediment inputs as discontinuous sand pulses....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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We describe and compare two probabilistic models for task-specific seafloor characterization based on multispectral backscatter. We examine whether generative or discriminative approaches to supervised seafloor characterization do better at harnessing the greatly increased information about seafloor substrate composition that is encoded in the backscattering response across multiple frequencies. A Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is proposed as a generative model, and a fully-connected conditional random field (CRF) is proposed as a discriminative model. Either model uses input data derived from monospectral or multispectral backscatter without modification. The CRF approach considers both the relative backscatter magnitudes...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Lateral flow separation occurs in rivers where banks exhibit strong curvature. In canyon-boundrivers, lateral recirculation zones are the principal storage of fine-sediment deposits. A parallelized,three-dimensional, turbulence-resolving model was developed to study the flow structures along lateralseparation zones located in two pools along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon. The model employs thedetached eddy simulation (DES) technique, which resolves turbulence structures larger than the grid spacingin the interior of the flow. The DES-3D model is validated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler flowmeasurements taken during the 2008 controlled flood release from Glen Canyon Dam. A point-to-pointvalidation using a...
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