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Upper Midwest Water Science Center

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This dataset is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Restoration Assessment (GLCWRA) initiative. These data represent the flowline network in the Green Bay Restoration Assessment (GBRA). It is attributed with the number of disconnections (e.g., road crossings) between the reach and Lake Ontario. The more road crossings on a flowline the more disconnected that area is from the lake and the less suitable it will be for restoration. These data help identify the condition of hydrologic separation between potential restoration areas and Lake Ontario. Low numbers represent fewer disconnections, such as culverts, between the reach and the water body requiring no flow network modification...
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Groundwater age distributions and susceptibility to natural and anthropogenic contaminants were assessed for selected wells, streambed piezometers, and springs in southeastern Minnesota. The data provide information to understand how long it will take to observe groundwater quality improvements from best management practices implemented at land surface to reduce losses of nitrate (and other chemicals) from agricultural practices. Nineteen water samples were collected from ten wells, three streambed piezometers, and four springs between August 2020 and September 2022. Two of these samples are field replicate samples collected from a spring site and a well site. A child item contains historical data from 15 water...
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This data release contains three groundwater-flow models of northeastern Wisconsin, USA, that were developed with differing levels of complexity to provide a framework for subsequent evaluations of the effects of process-based model complexity on estimates of groundwater age distributions for withdrawal wells and streams. Preliminary assessments, which focused on the effects of model complexity on simulated water levels in the glacial aquifer system, illustrate that simulation of vertical gradients using multiple model layers improves simulated heads more in relatively low-permeability units than in high-permeability units. Moreover, simulation of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields in both coarse-grained...
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A new groundwater flow model for western Chippewa County, Wisconsin has been developed by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). An analytic element GFLOW model was constructed and calibrated to generate hydraulic boundary conditions for the perimeter of the more detailed three-dimensional MODFLOW-NWT model. This three-dimensional model uses the USGS MODFLOW-NWT finite difference code, a standalone version of MODFLOW-2005 that incorporates the Newton (NWT) solver. The model conceptualizes the hydrogeology of western Chippewa County as a six-layer system which includes several hydrostratigraphic units. The model explicitly simulates groundwater-surface-water...
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A GFLOW model was constructed of the Park Falls Unit as part of a larger study of the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest. The model supports the goals of the project by providing improved characterization of the groundwater/surface-water system and a tool to evaluate the sensitivity of hydrologic flows and temperature to future climate and land use changes.
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