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W. Hildreth

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High-precision K-Ar dating and detailed mapping have established an eruptive chronology for a Cascade stratovolcano and its surrounding array of coeval basaltic centers. The time-volume-composition data bear upon several fundamental questions concerning the long-term behavior of arc volcanoes. -from Authors
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New data extend our understanding of the 1912 eruption, its backfilled vent complex at Novarupta, and magma-storage systems beneath adjacent stratovolcanoes. Initial Plinian rhyolite fallout is confined to a narrow downwind sector, and its maximum thickness may occur as far as 13 km from source. In contrast, the partly contemporaneous rhyolite-rich ash flows underwent relatively low-energy emplacement, their generation evidently being decoupled from the high column. Flow veneers 1-13 m thick on near-vent ridge crests exhibit a general rhyolite-to-andesite sequence like that of the much thicker valley-confined ignimbrite into which they merge downslope. Lithics in both the initial Plinian and the ignimbrite are predominantly...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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Situated in a submerged continental rift, Pantelleria is a volcanic island with a subaerial eruptive history longer than 300 Ka. Its eruptive behavior, edifice morphologies, and complex, multiunit geologic history are representative of strongly peralkaline centers. It is dominated by the 6-km-wide Cinque Denti caldera, which formed ca. 45 Ka ago during eruption of the Green Tuff, a strongly rheomorphic unit zoned from pantellerite to trachyte and consisting of falls, surges, and pyroclastic flows. Soon after collapse, trachyte lava flows from an intracaldera central vent built a broad cone that compensated isostatically for the volume of the caldera and nearly filled it. Progressive chemical evolution of the chamber...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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Major and trace element concentrations, including REE by isotope dilution, and Sr, Nd, Pb, and O isotope ratios have been determined for 38 mafic lavas from the Mount Adams, Crater Lake, Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic fields, in the Cascade arc, northwestern part of the United States. Many of the samples have a high Mg# [100Mg/(Mg + FeT) > 60] and Ni content (>140 ppm) such that we consider them to be primitive. We recognize three end-member primitive magma groups in the Cascades, characterized mainly by their trace-element and alkali-metal abundances: (1) High-alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT) has trace element abundances similar to N-MORB, except for slightly elevated LILE, and has Eu/Eu* > 1....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Canadian Mineralogist
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Isotopic and major and trace element analysis of nine samples of eruptive products spanning the history of the Mt. St. Helens volcano suggest three different episodes; (1) 40,000-2500 years ago: eruptions of dacite with ??{lunate}Nd = +5, ??{lunate}Sr = -10, variable ??18O, 206Pb/204Pb ??? 18.76, Ca/Sr ??? 60, Rb/Ba ??? 0.1, La/Yb ??? 18, (2) 2500-1000 years ago: eruptions of basalt, andesite and dacite with ??{lunate}Nd = +4 to +8, ??{lunate}Sr = -7 to -22, variable ??18O (thought to represent melting of differing mantle-crust reservoirs), 206Pb/204Pb = 18.81-18.87, variable Ca/Sr, Rb/Ba, La/Yb and high Zr, (3) 1000 years ago to present day: eruptions of andesite and dacite with ??{lunate}Nd = +6, ??{lunate}Sr...
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