Wilderness is vital to the conservation of wildlife species that are prone to conflict with humans and vulnerable to human-caused mortality. These species tend to be large and are often carnivorous. Such animals are typically problematic for humans because they kill livestock and, occasionally, humans, and cause inordinate damage to crops. The vulnerability of large herbivores and carnivores to humans is exacerbated by vigorous markets for wild meat and other body parts, widespread human poverty, and human societies prone to the breakdown of civil order. The survival of wilderness-dependent wildlife is thus not only linked to the preservation of extensive wilderness but is also affected by the health of human societies. Because overt intervention has limited uses in the preservation of wilderness-dependent wildlife, these animals pose a special problem for humanity. Their survival requires that we forgo domination of a substantial portion of the remaining wildlands on Earth.