Advanced borehole-geophysical techniques were used to assess the geohydrology of crystalline bedrock in 20 boreholes on the southern part of Manhattan Island, N.Y., in preparation for construction of a third water tunnel for New York City. The borehole-logging techniques included natural gamma, single-point resistance, short-normal resistivity, mechanical and acoustic caliper, magnetic susceptibility, borehole-fluid temperature and resistivity, borehole-fluid specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, redox, heatpulse flowmeter (at selected boreholes), borehole deviation, acoustic and optical televiewer, and borehole radar (at selected boreholes). Hydraulic head and specific-capacity test data were collected from 29 boreholes. The boreholes penetrated gneiss, schist, and other crystalline bedrock that has an overall southwest to northwest-dipping foliation. Most of the fractures penetrated are nearly horizontal or have moderate- to high-angle northwest or eastward dip azimuths. Foliation dip within the potential tunnel-construction zone is northwestward and southeastward in the proposed North Water-Tunnel, northwestward to southwestward in the proposed Midtown Water-Tunnel, and northwestward to westward dipping in the proposed South Water-Tunnel. Fracture population dip azimuths are variable. Heat-pulse flowmeter logs obtained under pumping and nonpumping (ambient) conditions, together with other geophysical logs, indicate transmissive fracture zones in each borehole. The 60-megahertz directional borehole-radar logs delineated the location and orientation of several radar reflectors that did not intersect the projection of the borehole.
Fracture indexes range from 0.12 to 0.93 fractures per foot of borehole. Analysis of specific-capacity tests from each borehole indicated that transmissivity ranges from 2 to 459 feet squared per day; the highest transmissivity is at the Midtown Water-Tunnel borehole (E35ST-D).
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|tableOfContents||<ul> <li>Abstract</li> <li>Introduction</li> <li>Methods</li> <li>Delineation of Faults, Fractures, Foliation, and Ground-Water-Flow Zones</li> <li>Summary and Conclusions</li> <li>Acknowledgments</li> <li>References Cited</li> <li>Appendix 1. Depth, dip azimuth, and dip angle of fractures and foliation observed by optical televiewer in North Water-Tunnel boreholes (W65ST-A, W67ST-A), Manhattan Island, N.Y., 2003-04</li> <li>Appendix 2. Depth, dip azimuth, and dip angle of fractures and foliation observed by optical televiewer in Midtown Water-Tunnel boreholes (W30ST-A, E30ST-A, E30ST-B, E33ST-A, E35ST-D, E39ST-A, E45ST-A, E48ST-A, E52ST-A, E54ST-A, E55ST-B) Manhattan Island, N.Y., 2003-04 </li> <li>Appendix 3. Depth, dip azimuth, and dip angle of fractures and foliation observed by optical televiewer in South Water-Tunnel boreholes (Ericsson-A, FranklinST-B, FranklinST-A, GrandST-B, PrinceST-A, BondST-A, 31B-1), Manhattan Island, N.Y., 2003-04</li> </ul>|