Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute grid of global drought total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating gross domestic product (GDP) based upon the Sachs et al. (2003) methodology is utilized. First the proportional contributions of subnational units to their respective national GDP are determined using sources of various origin. The contribution rates are then applied to published World Bank Development Indicators to determine a GDP value for the subnational unit. Once the national GDP is spatially stratified into the smallest adminstrative units available, GDP values for grid cells are derived using Gridded Population of the World Version 3.0 (beta) data of population distributions. A per capita contribution value is determined within each subnational unit, and this value is multiplied by the population per grid cell. Once a GDP value has been determined on a per grid cell basis, then the regionally variable loss rate as derived from the historical records of EM-DAT is used to determine the total economic loss risks posed to a grid cell by drought hazards. The final surface does not present absolute values of total economic loss, but rather a relative decile (1-10 with increasing risk) ranking of grid cells based upon the calculated economic loss risks. The dataset is a result of the collaboration among the Center for Hazards and Risk Research (CHRR), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, and the Columbia University Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN).