This ecoregion includes coastal and alluvial plains and some low hills in the coastal area of Southern California, and it extends over 200 miles south into Baja California. Coastal sage scrub and chaparral vegetation communities with many endemic species were once widespread before overgrazing, clearance for agriculture, and massive urbanization occurred. Coastal sage scrub includes chamise, white sage, black sage, California buckwheat, golden yarrow, and coastal cholla. The chaparral-covered hills include ceanothus, buckeye, manzanita, scrub oak, and mountain-mahogany. Coast live oak, canyon live oak, poison oak, and California black walnut also occur. A small area of Torrey pine occurs near San Diego.