We investigated the influence of Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum; OWB) monocultures on grassland bird abundance through analysis of vegetation structure and food availability. We compared breeding bird density, vegetation structure and composition, and arthropod biomass between six native grass and six OWB fields in the southern Great Plains. The OWB fields supported 1.70 ± 0.27 (mean ± SE) Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) per ha compared to 0.95 ± 0.25 in native grass fields, but total species richness was greater in native grass fields (40 versus 28 species). Density of some bird species was correlated with vegetation structure regardless of field type, suggesting that management practices may be more influential than plant species composition. Mean arthropod biomass was 3.39× greater in native grass fields than in OWB monocultures. Native grass fields provided habitat for a larger complement of birds than did OWB monocultures, and reduced food availability in OWB fields suggests a mechanism for that difference.