In this proposal we investigate how tree selection at the local scale affects biodiversity and ecosystem services (Obj. 1). We then look regionally to determine the extent to which trees in cities can be used to predict heat-related threats to rural forests (Obj. 2). We will leverage ongoing investigations of heat-related stress and pest outbreaks in urban and rural forests to develop management recommendations for both systems. These ongoing projects provide a knowledge-base, infrastructure (e.g. study sites), equipment (e.g. Li-Cor Photosynthesis System), and outreach opportunities that will extend the impact of this project (see Synergistic and Future Funding section below). We will also convene a working group to assess how urban environmental changes and tree cover affect human behavior and health (Obj. 3). Specifically, our objectives are to: 1. Determine tree (and arthropod) characteristics that affect tree-dependent biodiversity, tree herbivory, and resilience of both trees and biodiversity to warming. 2. Understand how urbanization (and heat) influences pest populations in order to predict future distributions of pests (and loss of biodiversity) in natural forests. 3. Integrate effects of warming and urbanization on tree health with effects on human health.