Summer stream temperatures limit the distribution of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and are affected by riparian vegetation. We used riparian and instream habitat surveys along with stream temperature loggers placed throughout streams to determine the potential for riparian vegetation shading to increase the length of stream that is thermally suitable for Brook Trout. Twelve streams located throughout central Wisconsin were evaluated in the summers of 2007 and 2008. Across all streams, nonparametric ANCOVA modeling was used to identify spatial temperature patterns within a year for individual stream segments. Riparian tree-vegetated segments had a significantly lower mean change in stream temperature per kilometer of stream compared with grass-vegetated segments during the periods of maximum daily and weekly average temperatures, when we accounted for upstream temperature. Riparian grass-vegetated segments increased on average 1.19°C/km (SE, 0.44) during the maximum daily average temperature period and 0.93°C/km (SE, 0.39) during the maximum weekly average temperature period, whereas tree-vegetated segments decreased 0.48°C/km (SE, 0.39) and 0.30°C/km (SE, 0.25) during those respective time periods. Maximum weekly average temperatures were also modeled with different shading levels using a heat budget temperature model, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Stream Segment Temperature Model. Across 11 study streams (one stream model could not be calibrated), modeled stream temperatures in equilibrium with their environmental conditions ranging from 23.2°C to 28.3°C at 0% shading could be reduced to 18.8–23.5°C with 75% shading. Modeled increases in shade up to 75% from the current average of 34% increased the length of surveyed stream thermally suitable to Brook Trout by 4.9 km on Sucker Creek. We conclude that riparian forests are important for maintaining thermal conditions suitable for Brook Trout in central Wisconsin streams and can be managed to increase the amount of stream habitat thermally suitable for Brook Trout.