Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae), native to montane forests of the neotropics, has now invaded wet forests of both the Society and Hawaiian Islands. This tree, which grows up to 15 m tall, is potentially the most invasive and damaging weed of rainforests of Pacific islands. In moist conditions, it grows rapidly, tolerates shade, and produces abundant seed that is effectively dispersed by birds and accumulates in a large, persistent soil seed-bank. Introduced to the Hawaiian Islands in 1961, M. calvescens appears to threaten much of the biological diversity in native forests receiving 1800–2000 mm or more annual precipitation. Currently, M. calvescens is found on 4 Hawaiian islands— Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, and Kauai. Widespread awareness of this invader began in the early 1990s. Although biological control is being pursued, conventional control techniques (mechanical and chemical) to contain and eradicate it locally are underway.