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Use of benthic invertebrate community structure and the sediment quality triad to evaluate metal-contaminated sediment in the upper Clark Fork River, Montana

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Timothy J. Canfield, Nile E. Kemble, William G. Brumbaugh, F. James Dwyer, Christopher G. Ingersoll, and James F. Fairchild, 1994, Use of benthic invertebrate community structure and the sediment quality triad to evaluate metal-contaminated sediment in the upper Clark Fork River, Montana: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 13, iss. 12.

Summary

The upper Clark Fork River, above Flathead River, is contaminated with large amounts of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn ores from past mining activities. The contaminated area extends from the Butte and Anaconda area to at least 230 km downstream to Milltown Reservoir. Both the upper Clark Fork River and Milltown Reservoir have been designated as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites because of metal-contaminated bottom sediments. We evaluated the impacts of past mining activities on the Clark Fork River ecosystem using benthic invertebrate community assessment, residue chemistry, and toxicity testing. Oligochaeta and Chironomidae generally accounted for over 90% of the benthic invertebrate community in the soft sediment [...]

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Type Scheme Key
local-index unknown 70179266
local-pk unknown 70179266
doi http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods/mods-outline-3-5.html#identifier doi:10.1002/etc.5620131213
series unknown Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

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citationTypeArticle
journalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
languageEnglish
parts
typevolume
value13
typeissue
value12

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