Sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in two tributary streams (about 20 km apart) of the same lake were compared for temporal variation in phenotypic (length, depth adjusted for length) and genotypic (six microsatellite loci) traits. Peak run time (July 16 versus 11 August) and run duration (43 versus 26 d) differed between streams. Populations were sampled twice, including an overlapping point in time. Divergence at microsatellite loci followed a temporal cline: Population sample groups collected at the same time were not different (F ST = 0), whereas those most separated in time were different (F ST = 0.011, P = 0.001). Although contemporaneous sample groups did not differ significantly in microsatellite genotypes (F ST = 0), phenotypic traits did differ significantly (MANOVA, P < 0.001). Fish from the larger stream were larger; fish from the smaller stream were smaller, suggesting differential fitness related to size. Results indicate run time differences among and within sockeye salmon populations may strongly influence levels of gene flow.