An important aspect of planning a new mine or mine expansion within the modern regulatory framework is to design for ultimate closure. Sampling and monitoring for closure is a form of environmental risk management. By implementing a sampling and monitoring program early in the life of the mining operation, major costs can be avoided or minimized. The costs for treating mine drainage in perpetuity are staggering, especially if they are unanticipated. The Metal Mining Sector of the Acid Drainage Technology Initiative (ADTI-MMS), a cooperative government-industry-academia organization, was established to address drainage-quality technologies of metal mining and metallurgical operations. ADTI-MMS recommends that sampling and monitoring programs consider the entire mine-life cycle and that data needed for closure of an operation be collected from exploration through postclosure.