The micronucleus test using erythrocytes of the peripheral blood of fish is often conducted to evaluate the genotoxic effects of pollutants under experimental and natural conditions. This report presents information on the production of micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in erythrocytes of medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to three polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) formulations (Halowaxes 1014, 1031 and 1051) or tributyltin (TBT). Three types of deviation in the morphology of interphase nuclei were observed in medaka erythrocytes: micronuclei, nuclei fragmented into two equal or unequal parts, and nuclei at different stages of invagination. The number of erythrocytes with nuclear anomalies typically increased after chemical exposure. However, differential dose-response patterns were observed with exposures to PCNs or TBT. Polychlorinated naphthalenes caused genotoxicity, while TBT caused an amitotic effect. Gender did not influence the frequency of nuclear anomalies. This is the first report on the application of the piscine micronuclear test with medaka and is the first study that investigated the potential for detecting micronuclei in erythrocytes from adult medaka exposed in ovo to mutagens.