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Western United States Ruggedness Raw Values


Publication Date


Welty, J.L., and Jeffries, M.I., 2018, Western United States Ruggedness Raw Values: U.S. Geological Survey data release,


"Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM) measures terrain ruggedness as the variation in three-dimensional orientation of grid cells within a neighborhood. Vector analysis is used to calculate the dispersion of vectors normal (orthogonal) to grid cells within the specified neighborhood. This method effectively captures variability in slope and aspect into a single measure. Ruggedness values in the output raster can range from 0 (no terrain variation) to 1 (complete terrain variation). Typical values for natural terrains range between 0 and about 0.4. VRM was adapted from a method first proposed by Hobson (1972). VRM appears to decouple terrain ruggedness from slope better than current ruggedness indices, such as TRI or LSRI. See Sappington [...]


Attached Files

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10.27 GB
Western US Ruggedness Raw Values 20181016.xml
Original FGDC Metadata

13.38 KB
Western_US_Unbinned_Ruggedness.sld 1.79 KB


This raster was generated as a precursor layer to generate a layer used with the Land Treatment Exploration Tool. The exploration tool uses the binned version of this data, while this raster includes the raw, calculated values.



  • Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center (FRESC)
  • USGS Data Release Products



Additional Information


Type Scheme Key
DOI doi:10.5066/F76D5S92

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