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SO2 emission rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii (2014-2017)


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Elias, T., Kern, C., Horton, K., Garbeil, H., and Sutton, A.J., 2018, SO2 emission rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii (2014-2017): U.S. Geological Survey data release,


This report documents the SO2 emission rates for the period 2014-2017, from the summit and East Rift Zone eruptions of Kīlauea, along with the wind or plume speed and direction data used to calculate the emission rates. The Kīlauea summit SO2 emission rates are reported every ten seconds, as measured by a novel configuration of 10 fixed, upward looking UV spectrometers (FLYSPEC array), and for days with at least 2 hours of data, the daily means are reported. The plume or wind speeds used to calculate the emission rates are measured by cross correlation of plume features (see William-Jones and others (2006)) or by ground-based anemometer (SDH) and are reported with the emission rates. When the SDH ground based wind speed is used, the [...]


Point of Contact :
Tamar Elias
Originator :
Tamar Elias, Christoph Kern, Keith Horton, Harold Garbeil, A. Jeff Sutton
Metadata Contact :
Tamar Elias
Publisher :
U.S. Geological Survey
Distributor :
U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
SDC Data Owner :
Volcano Hazards Program Office
USGS Mission Area :
Natural Hazards

Attached Files

Click on title to download individual files attached to this item.

“Summit SO2 FLYSPEC array 10s”
49.88 MB text/csv
“Summit SO2 FLYSPEC array Daily Average”
16.9 KB text/csv
“Summit WS/WD Sandhill”
5.95 MB text/csv
“East Rift Zone SO2 road traverse”
5.66 KB text/csv
“Frequency count of 10s FLYSPEC array data”
222 Bytes text/csv

“Summit SO2 FLYSPEC and DOAS spectra”
1.33 GB application/zip


The measurements were collected to analyze the spectral absorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in scattered solar radiation passing through the volcanic plume. Together with a geometrical plume model, these measurements allowed the amount of SO2 released from the Kīlauea ERZ and summit eruptions to be calculated. See the associated manuscript in Frontiers in Earth Science for more information.



  • USGS Data Release Products



Additional Information


Type Scheme Key
DOI doi:10.5066/F7794402

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