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Spring leaf and bloom index dates (1880-2013) and migratory bird flyways


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Weltzin, J.F., Crimmins, T.M., Posthumus, E.E., Walker, J.J., and Waller, E.K. 2018, Spring leaf and bloom index dates (1880-2013) and migratory bird flyways: U.S. Geological Survey data release,


This page contains NetCDF files of the Spring Leaf and Bloom Indices spanning 1880-2013. These files were created and are maintained by the USA National Phenology Network ( The Extended Spring Indices are mathematical models that predict the "start of spring" (timing of leaf out or bloom for species active in early spring) at a particular location (Schwartz 1997, Schwartz et al. 2006, Schwartz et al. 2013). These models were constructed using historical observations of the timing of first leaf and first bloom in a cloned lilac cultivar (S. x chinensis 'Red Rothomagensis') and two cloned honeysuckle cultivars (Lonicera tatarica 'Arnold Red' and L. korolkowii 'Zabelii'). Primary inputs to the model are temperature and [...]


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These datasets were compiled to evaluate changes in the start of spring onset at three spatial scales: the US National Wildlife Refuge System; the four major bird migratory flyways in North America; and the seasonal ranges (i.e., breeding and non-breeding grounds) of two migratory bird species, Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) and Whooping Crane (Grus americana) for the period 1901 to 2012


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DOI doi:10.5066/P9Z4C9LE

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