Skip to main content

MODFLOW-2005 and SWI2 models for assessing groundwater availability scenarios in volcanic aquifers on Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii


Publication Date
Start Date
End Date


Rotzoll, K., and Izuka, S.K., 2023, MODFLOW-2005 and SWI2 models for assessing groundwater availability scenarios in volcanic aquifers on Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey data release,


Previously constructed steady-state numerical groundwater-flow models for the islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii ( using MODFLOW-2005 with the Seawater Intrusion (SWI2) package, were used to examine the consequences of historical and plausible future withdrawals and changes in recharge. The volcanic aquifers of the Hawaiian Islands supply water to 1.46 million residents, diverse industries, and a large component of the U.S. military in the Pacific. Groundwater also supplies freshwater that supports ecosystems in streams and near the coast. Hawaii’s aquifers are remarkable given their small size, but the islands’ capacity to store fresh groundwater is limited because each island is surrounded [...]


Attached Files

Click on title to download individual files attached to this item.

readme.txt 8.83 KB text/plain
modelgeoref.txt 734 Bytes text/plain 3.34 MB application/zip 128.62 KB application/zip 23.96 MB application/zip 83.48 MB application/zip 13.53 MB application/zip
pp2023_1876_thumbnail.jpg thumbnail 994.13 KB image/jpeg


The groundwater flow models are designed to quantify the consequences of groundwater withdrawal and changes in recharge that can limit the availability of fresh groundwater for human use in Hawaii. Withdrawal from wells causes decreases in groundwater discharge to streams and the ocean, lowering of the water table, and rise of saltwater. Limits placed on these effects, for example limiting reduction of discharge to streams to protect aquatic habitats or limiting saltwater rise to protect existing wells, can translate to limits on future groundwater availability. Groundwater availability can be further restricted if climate change causes reduction in groundwater recharge. Quantification of the impacts of withdrawals and climate change is essential for informing decisions related to groundwater availability in Hawaii. The development of the model scenarios in this data release are documented in the U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1876 (

Additional Information


Type Scheme Key
DOI doi:10.5066/P97CPK5C

Item Actions

View Item as ...

Save Item as ...

View Item...