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We deployed miniature Temperature-Depth Recorders (TDRs; Cefas G5, 3 g, Cefas Technology Ltd., Lowestoft, UK) to measure dive depths and wet/dry condition (depending on TDR model year). TDRs have a saltwater switch that, when immersed, initiates a FastLog mode to record pressure and temperature at high resolution. The FastLog mode can be programmed to record only if the pressure is greater than a user-defined threshold (e.g. dive depth). In addition, some units have a wet/dry setting to record the start and end times of wet periods (bouts of time on the water, regardless of dive behavior). CEFAS G5 TDRs are an archival unit, requiring recapture of the tagged bird to recover the tag and download data. TDRs were...
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We deployed miniature Temperature-Depth Recorders (TDRs; Cefas G5, 3 g, Cefas Technology Ltd., Lowestoft, UK) to measure dive depths and wet/dry condition (depending on TDR model year). TDRs have a saltwater switch that, when immersed, initiates a FastLog mode to record pressure and temperature at high resolution. The FastLog mode can be programmed to record only if the pressure is greater than a user-defined threshold (e.g. dive depth). In addition, some units have a wet/dry setting to record the start and end times of wet periods (bouts of time on the water, regardless of dive behavior). CEFAS G5 TDRs are an archival unit, requiring recapture of the tagged bird to recover the tag and download data. TDRs were...
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This data relase is a product of Atlas of Breeding Seabirds of the Main Hawaiian Islands Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge (KPNWR) is an important seabird breeding site located at the northeastern tip of Kauaʻi in the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). Despite the regional significance of KPNWR as one of the most important breeding sites for Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula), and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Ardenna pacifica) in MHI, robust and accurate population surveys have not been consistently conducted and recent information is lacking. In this study, we completed comprehensive population surveys for these three species during the 2019 breeding season. Using direct censusing...
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This database is a compilation of marine mammal and seabird information collected along the Pacific coast of the United States and U.S. territories in the Pacific from surveys that were solicited among regional research communities and persons. Information from standardized surveys was gathered from 2015 to 2018 and includes programs and researchers who collected information regarding seabirds since 1960. These data support the following publication: Adams, J., Lafferty, K.D., Kelsey, E.C., and Johnston, C.A. 2019. Synopsis of Research Programs that can Provide Baseline and Monitoring Information for Offshore Energy Activities in the Pacific Region: Seabird and Marine Mammal Surveys in the Pacific Region. U.S....
We used a stratified-random sampling approach to estimate the total abundance of Wedge-tailed Shearwater (Ardenna pacifica) nest sites across Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge (KPNWR), Kauaʻi, during 1-7 July 2019. We first identified strata as unique geographic areas of the refuge to account for potential differences in nesting habitat and non-uniform nest site clustering. We then sub-divided strata where we expected high, low, minimal, or no nest site abundance. These distinctions were based on knowledge of shearwater nesting distribution gained while performing extensive ground-searching for tropicbirds across the entire refuge in April and May 2019. We delineated strata boundaries using recent satellite...
During 13-18 May, 2019, we censused red-footed boobies (Sula sula) at Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge (KPNWR), Kauaʻi. To evaluate ground-based visual counts and assess variability among methods, we employed photographic techniques to count nesting red-footed boobies at KPNWR in three distinct sub-colony areas: Crater Hill East, Crater Hill Interior, and Crater Hill West (see associated data series report for delineation of sub-colony areas). For ground-based photos, we used a Sony a7rii camera (42 megapixel full-frame) equipped with a Sony 100-400mm F4.5-5.6G lens to allow sufficient resolution to count nests and birds. We achieved pixel resolutions (as a function of camera resolution, focal length, and...
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The U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center (USGS-WERC), with support from the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is working with many partners to generate an Atlas of Breeding Seabirds of the Main Hawaiian Islands. This atlas will provide benchmarks to measure future changes in seabird population sizes and breeding distribution throughout Hawai‘i and will also assist efforts to evaluate threats to Hawaiian seabirds both on land and at sea. Ultimately, species- and colony-specific data for main Hawaiian Island seabirds on land and at sea will inform evaluations of potential risk and options for mitigation strategies for effects of offshore energy infrastructure on seabirds. This ScienceBase...
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In this study, we employed several bio-logging technologies to track at-sea movement and behavior of five main Hawaiian Island (MHI) breeding seabird species (Brown Booby [Sula leucogaster], Laysan Albatross [Phoebastria immutabilis], Red-tailed Tropicbird [Phaethon rubricauda], Red-footed Booby [Sula sula], and Wedge-tailed Shearwater [Ardenna pacifica]) at multiple breeding colonies on or near the islands of Maui, O‘ahu, and Kaua‘i. We utilized Global Positioning System (GPS) tags to track seabird spatial movements, temperature-depth recorders (TDRs) to measure diving and immersion patterns, and accelerometry to identify behaviors. The Deployments table provides details of all deployment and ancillary information...
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Predation and habitat degradation by non-native species are principal terrestrial threats to the federally endangered Hawaiian Petrel (ʻuaʻu, Pterodroma sandwichensis) and Hawaiian Goose (nēnē, Branta sandvicensis) within Haleakalā National Park (HALE), Maui, Hawaiʻi. Since 1981, HALE has maintained a network of live-traps to control invasive mammalian predators and protect these endangered birds. To continue evaluations of trapping efficiency in HALE, we analyzed 2000 - 2014 trap events. Trap events were divided up into six event types classified into three event categories: no event, other event [bait lost, or trap triggered], or predator event [rat, cat, or mongoose caught]. Event type analysis was divided up...
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Background - Interest in developing alternative sources of renewable energy to reduce dependence on oil has increased in recent years. Some sources of renewable energy being considered will include power generation infrastructure and support activities located within continental shelf waters, and potentially within deeper waters off the U.S. Pacific coast and beyond state waters (i.e., outside three nautical miles). Currently, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) is considering renewable energy proposals off the coast of Oregon, California, and Hawaii. From 1999–2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Humboldt State University (HSU) worked with BOEM (formely known as the Minerals Management Service,...
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In 2017-2019, USGS Western Ecological Research Center (USGS WERC) partnered with California State Parks to continue long-term, at-sea surveys to estimate at-sea abundance and juvenile (i.e. hatch-year) productivity of Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Zone 6 (central California: San Francisco Bay to Monterey Bay). Marbled Murrelets have been listed as “Endangered” by the State of California and “Threatened” by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service since 1992. Marbled Murrelets have been surveyed at sea off central California since 1995 (Becker et al. 1997), and standardized surveys to estimate abundance and productivity have been conducted since 1999 (excluding...
During 8-11 April, 13-18 May, and 1-7 July 2019, we censused Red-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon rubricauda) and White-tailed Tropicbird (P. lepturus) nests in Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge (KPNWR), Kauaʻi, by searching all foot-accessible areas and by searching all cliffs and islets with spotting scopes from remote vantage points. We censused over the course of three visits to account for prolonged and asynchronous nesting. For ground searching, we used previous nest census results, recommendations from the previous Refuge biologist, and knowledge of tropicbird nesting habitat, to focus searches in areas where nesting was likely: along cliff edges and steep slopes, particularly at the base of ironwood trees...
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We deployed three models of e-obs GPS loggers on seabirds in this study: Bird Solar 30g, Bird Solar 15g, and Bird Battery 30g (e-obs GmbH, Gruenwald, Germany). Bird Solar 30g and Bird Battery 30g tags were used on Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) and Bird Solar 15g tags were used on Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula). All e-obs GPS tags utilized a base station to acquire and archive tracking data, thus absolving the need to recover the GPS tag to retrieve data. Bird Solar (30 g and 15 g) tags included a solar panel to recharge tag battery while deployed, whereas the Bird Battery 30 g tag relied exclusively on an internal battery for power supply. All e-obs GPS tags included onboard tri-axial accelerometers....
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Herein we provide a comprehensive database of storm-petrel (Hydrobates spp.) morphometrics, banding, and associated mist-netting data collected within Channel Islands National Park (CHIS) from 1994 to 2018. The most abundant storm-petrel species in CHIS, the ashy storm-petrel (Hydrobates homochroa; ASSP), was the focal species in most mist-netting efforts, but data also were recorded for Leach’s (H. leucorhoa; Adams et al. 2016) and black (H. melania) storm-petrel. Collecting and compiling recent and historic mist-net datasets into one database has facilitated summary analyses of important components of these data including species morphometrics, recapture rates, and incubation patch condition (a potential indicator...
This file contains the flight trackline Global Positioning System (GPS) point data from the aerial surveys. Surveys were flown at 60 meters (200 feet) above sea level at 160 kilometers per hour (90 knots) ground speed. The surveys were flown in a high-winged, twin engine Partenavia PN 68 Observer aircraft following methods developed for seabirds by Briggs et al. (1987). GPS points were recorded every five seconds to allow adequate spatial coverage of the trackline (222 meters is traversed every five seconds at the survey speed of 160 kilometers per hour) and to limit the size of the resulting data files. Data was collected using a laptop computer running the program dLOG (R.G. Ford Consulting, Inc.) that allowed...
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Broad survey lines, island radial survey lines, coastal survey lines, and focal-area (Santa Barbara Channel) survey lines were surveyed during each oceanographic season: spring (May), fall (September), and winter (January) during 1999 (May and September), 2000 (January, May, September), 2001 (January May, September), and 2002 (January). Aerial survey methods follow Mason et al. (2007). Specifically, we recorded all sightings of marine animals, vessels, and floating objects from twin-engine, high wing aircraft (Partenavia P-68s, Aspen Helicopters, Oxnard, CA, or California Department of Fish and Game) along pre-determined 100-meter (50 meters per side) strip transects at 60 meters above sea level. Surveys were flown...
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We deployed modified iGotU GT-120 (Mobile Action Technologies, New Taipei City, Taiwan) on Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda; 2014-2016), Brown Boobies (Sula leucogaster; 2014-2015), Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula; 2013-2015), and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Ardenna pacifica; 2013-2015). The iGotU GT-120 GPS tags are an archival unit, requiring recapture of the tagged bird to recover the tag and download data. Because these are consumer electronic products and not specifically designed for wildlife telemetry, we stripped GT-120 loggers from their factory housings and sealed them within 2:1 low-shrink-temperature, polyolefin heat-shrink tubing to create a lightweight, waterproof housing (AMS-DTL-23053/ 5-310,...
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Due to recent interest in developing offshore wind energy infrastructure around the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), U.S. Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center (USGS–WERC) partnered with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) from 2013–2016 to study breeding Hawaiian seabird distributions, habitat utilizations, and ranging behaviors within near-island and outer continental shelf waters. In this study, we employed several bio-logging technologies to track at-sea movement and behavior of five MHI-breeding seabird species: Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster), Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis), Red-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon rubricauda), Red-footed Booby (Sula sula), and Wedge-tailed Shearwater...
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Two metrics were used to determine Collision Vulnerability: Macro-avoidance and habitat flexibility. Macro-avoidance (MA)—The macro-avoidance values for species indicate the species-specific probability of avoidance for birds associated with wind power infrastructure. For each species, we derived this value from observed macro-avoidance rates (via human observation and radar) at existing offshore wind power sites. In cases where species-specific data were not available, we used information from similar taxa. Habitat Flexibility (HF)—the degree to which a species shows habitat-specific feeding strategies (habitat flexibility) influences its vulnerability for displacement by offshore infrastructure. We evaluated literature...
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Six metrics were used to determine Population Vulnerability: global population size, annual occurrence in the California Current System (CCS), percent of the population present in the CCS, threat status, breeding score, and annual adult survival. Global Population size (POP)—to determine population size estimates for each species we gathered information tabulated by American Bird Conservancy, Birdlife International, and other primary sources. Proportion of Population in CCS (CCSpop)—for each species, we generated the population size within the CCS by averaging region-wide population estimates, or by combining state estimates for California, Oregon, and Washington for each species (if estimates were not available...


map background search result map search result map At-sea aerial survey GPS points in southern California, 1999-2002 At-sea aerial survey species observations in southern California, 1999-2002 Displacement vulnerability of marine birds within the California Current System Population vulnerability of marine birds within the California Current System Database of Marine Mammal and Seabird Research Activity in the Pacific (US) Annual Marbled Murrelet Abundance and Productivity Surveys Off Central California (Zone 6), 1999-2019 (ver. 3.0, March 2020) At-sea ranging behavior of seabirds breeding in the main Hawaiian Islands: Bio-logger data release (ver. 2.0, May 2020) 1. Tag deployments and ancillary data for seabirds breeding in the main Hawaiian Islands 5. Temperature-Depth-Recorder (TDR) wet period data of seabirds breeding in the main Hawaiian Islands 4. Temperature-Depth-Recorder (TDR) FastLog data of seabirds breeding in the main Hawaiian Islands 3. GPS (iGotU) tracking data of seabirds breeding in the main Hawaiian Islands 2. GPS (e-obs) tracking and accelerometry data of seabirds breeding in them main Hawaiian Islands Trap records used to analyze trends in mammalian predator control trapping events intended to protect ground-nesting, endangered birds at Haleakalā National Park, Hawai'i (2000 - 2014) Atlas of Breeding Seabirds of the Main Hawaiian Islands Population Estimates for Selected Breeding Seabirds at Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge, Kauaʻi, in 2019 1. Photograph index, camera settings, and locational information for images used to count Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula) nesting at Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge, Kauaʻi, in 2019 3. Nest sites and habitat characteristics for Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda) and White-tailed Tropicbirds (P. lepturus) at Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge, Kauaʻi, in 2019 6. Strata boundaries for nesting Wedge-tailed Shearwater (Ardenna pacifica) surveys at Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge, Kauaʻi, in 2019 Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE), Banding, and Morphometric Data Collected During Nocturnal Mist-Netting Sessions to Evaluate Trends and Variability Among Storm-Petrels of the California Channel Islands (1994-2018) 3. Nest sites and habitat characteristics for Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda) and White-tailed Tropicbirds (P. lepturus) at Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge, Kauaʻi, in 2019 6. Strata boundaries for nesting Wedge-tailed Shearwater (Ardenna pacifica) surveys at Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge, Kauaʻi, in 2019 Atlas of Breeding Seabirds of the Main Hawaiian Islands Population Estimates for Selected Breeding Seabirds at Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge, Kauaʻi, in 2019 1. Photograph index, camera settings, and locational information for images used to count Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula) nesting at Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge, Kauaʻi, in 2019 Trap records used to analyze trends in mammalian predator control trapping events intended to protect ground-nesting, endangered birds at Haleakalā National Park, Hawai'i (2000 - 2014) Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE), Banding, and Morphometric Data Collected During Nocturnal Mist-Netting Sessions to Evaluate Trends and Variability Among Storm-Petrels of the California Channel Islands (1994-2018) 1. Tag deployments and ancillary data for seabirds breeding in the main Hawaiian Islands At-sea aerial survey species observations in southern California, 1999-2002 At-sea aerial survey GPS points in southern California, 1999-2002 5. Temperature-Depth-Recorder (TDR) wet period data of seabirds breeding in the main Hawaiian Islands 4. Temperature-Depth-Recorder (TDR) FastLog data of seabirds breeding in the main Hawaiian Islands 3. GPS (iGotU) tracking data of seabirds breeding in the main Hawaiian Islands Displacement vulnerability of marine birds within the California Current System Population vulnerability of marine birds within the California Current System 2. GPS (e-obs) tracking and accelerometry data of seabirds breeding in them main Hawaiian Islands At-sea ranging behavior of seabirds breeding in the main Hawaiian Islands: Bio-logger data release (ver. 2.0, May 2020) Database of Marine Mammal and Seabird Research Activity in the Pacific (US)