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Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from the western North Atlantic record variations in the Nd and Pb isotopic composition of Cenozoic deep water preserved during their growth. The timing and cause of the most striking change have been the subject of debate. Some have proposed that the shift took place after 4 Ma in response to the closure of the Panama gateway. Others have argued that the major change in isotope composition occurred as early as 8 Ma. This study presents high-resolution Nd isotope records for crusts previously dated using 10Be/9Be chronology. These data confirm that the shifts in Nd occurred after 4 Ma, consistent with a likely relationship with the closure of the Central American Isthmus...
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Isotopic and major and trace element analysis of nine samples of eruptive products spanning the history of the Mt. St. Helens volcano suggest three different episodes; (1) 40,000-2500 years ago: eruptions of dacite with ??{lunate}Nd = +5, ??{lunate}Sr = -10, variable ??18O, 206Pb/204Pb ??? 18.76, Ca/Sr ??? 60, Rb/Ba ??? 0.1, La/Yb ??? 18, (2) 2500-1000 years ago: eruptions of basalt, andesite and dacite with ??{lunate}Nd = +4 to +8, ??{lunate}Sr = -7 to -22, variable ??18O (thought to represent melting of differing mantle-crust reservoirs), 206Pb/204Pb = 18.81-18.87, variable Ca/Sr, Rb/Ba, La/Yb and high Zr, (3) 1000 years ago to present day: eruptions of andesite and dacite with ??{lunate}Nd = +6, ??{lunate}Sr...
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Three ferromanganese crusts from the northeast, northwest and central Atlantic were re-dated using osmium (Os) isotope stratigraphy and yield ages from middle Miocene to the present. The three Os isotope records do not show evidence for growth hiatuses. The reconstructed Os isotope-based growth rates for the sections older than 10??Ma are higher than those determined previously by the combined beryllium isotope (10Be/9Be) and cobalt (Co) constant-flux methods, which results in a decrease in the maximum age of each crust. This re-dating does not lead to significant changes to the interpretation of previously determined radiogenic isotope neodymium, lead (Nd, Pb) time series because the variability of these isotopes...
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Hydrogenetic ferromanganese oxyhydroxide crusts (Fe-Mn crusts) precipitate out of cold ambient ocean water onto hard-rock surfaces (seamounts, plateaus, ridges) at water depths of about 400 to 4000 m throughout the ocean basins. The slow-growing (mm/Ma) Fe-Mn crusts concentrate most elements above their mean concentration in the Earth's crust. Tellurium is enriched more than any other element (up to about 50,000 times) relative to its Earth's crustal mean of about 1 ppb, compared with 250 times for the next most enriched element. We analyzed the Te contents for a suite of 105 bulk hydrogenetic crusts and 140 individual crust layers from the global ocean. For comparison, we analyzed 10 hydrothermal stratabound Mn-oxide...
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The application of radiogenic isotopes to the study of Cenozoic circulation patterns in the South Pacific Ocean has been hampered by the fact that records from only equatorial Pacific deep water have been available. We present new Pb and Nd isotope time series for two ferromanganese crusts that grew from equatorial Pacific bottom water (D137-01, "Nova," 7219 m water depth) and southwest Pacific deep water (63KD, "Tasman," 1700 m water depth). The crusts were dated using 10Be/9Be ratios combined with constant Co-flux dating and yield time series for the past 38 and 23 Myr, respectively. The surface Nd and Pb isotope distributions are consistent with the present-day circulation pattern, and therefore the new records...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Paleoceanography
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The Bishop Tuff represents a single eruption of chemically zoned rhyolitic magma. Six whole rock samples spanning the compositional and temperature range yield initial 87Sr 86Sr of 0.7060-0.7092 and ??18O of 5.9-10.3???. Six constituent sanidines yield smaller ranges of initial 87Sr 86Sr of 0.7061-0.7069 and ??18O of 6.7-7.9. In contrast 143Nd 144Nd ratios for the six whole rocks and two constituent magnetites exhibit negligible variation with a mean of 0.51258 ?? 1. These data are used to show that the phenocrysts were precipitated from an already chemically zoned liquid, that the zoning process involved negligible assimilation of, or exchange with, country rocks and that the extreme Sr and O isotopic disequilibria...
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Ferromanganese crusts provide records of long term change in ocean circulation and continental weathering. However, calibrating their age prior to 10 Ma has been entirely based on empirical growth rate models using Co concentrations, which have inherently large uncertainties and fail to detect hiatuses and erosional events. We present a new method for dating these crusts by measuring their osmium (Os) isotope record and matching it to the well-known marine Os isotope evolution of the past 80 Ma. The well-characterised crust CD29-2 from the central Pacific, was believed to define a record of paleooceanographic change from 50 Ma. Previous growth rate estimates based on the Co method are consistent with the new Os...
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A Cenozoic record of hafnium isotopic compositions of central Pacific deep water has been obtained from two ferromanganese crusts. The crusts are separated by more than 3000 kilometers but display similar secular variations. Significant fluctuations in hafnium isotopic composition occurred in the Eocene and Oligocene, possibly related to direct advection from the Indian and Atlantic oceans. Hafnium isotopic compositions have remained approximately uniform for the past 20 million years, probably reflecting increased isolation of the central Pacific. The mechanisms responsible for the increase in 87Sr/86Sr in seawater through the Cenozoic apparently had no effect on central Pacific deep-water hafnium.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Science
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The iron (Fe) isotope compositions of 37 hydrogenetic ferromanganese deposits from various oceans have been analysed by MC-ICPMS; they permit the construction of a global map of Fe isotopic values. The isotopic compositions range between -1.2 and -0.1??? in ??57FeIRMM14. Averages for the Atlantic and the Pacific are -0.41 and -0.88???, but their standard deviations are identical (0.27, 1 ??) and the data very largely overlap. No correlation is found with Pb or Nd isotope compositions and there is no evidence that the observed oceanic Fe isotopic heterogeneity is directly controlled by variations in continental sources. The small quantities of Fe that can be introduced from hydrothermal sources render as unlikely...
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Since 2.2 Ma, the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field has produced ~6000 km3 of rhyolite tuffs and lavas in >60 separate eruptions, as well as ~100 km3 of tholeiitic basalt from >50 vents peripheral to the silicic focus. Intermediate eruptive products are absent. Early postcollapse rhyolites show large shifts in Nd, Sr, Pb, and O isotopic composition caused by assimilation of roof rocks and hydrothermal brines during collapse and resurgence. Younger intracaldera rhyolite lavas record partial isotopic recovery toward precaldera ratios. Thirteen extracaldera rhyolites show none of these effects and have sources independent of the subcaldera magma system. Contributions from the Archaean crust have extreme values and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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Secular variations in the Pb isotopic composition of a mixed hydrogenous-hydrothermal ferromanganese crust from the Bauer Basin in the eastern Equatorial Pacific provide clear evidence for changes in hydrothermal contributions during the past 7 Myr. The nearby Galapagos Rise spreading center provided a strong hydrothermal flux prior to 6.5 Ma. After 6.5 Ma, the Pb became stepwise more radiogenic and more similar to Equatorial Pacific seawater, reflecting the westward shift of spreading to the presently active East Pacific Rise (EPR). A second, previously unrecognized enhanced hydrothermal period occurred between 4.4 and 2.9 Ma, which reflects either off-axis hydrothermal activity in the Bauer Basin or a late-stage...
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The behavior of dissolved Hf in the marine environment is not well understood due to the lack of direct seawater measurements of Hf isotopes and the limited number of Hf isotope time-series obtained from ferromanganese crusts. In order to place better constraints on input sources and develop further applications, a combined Nd-Hf isotope time-series study of five Pacific ferromanganese crusts was carried out. The samples cover the past 38 Myr and their locations range from sites at the margin of the ocean to remote areas, sites from previously unstudied North and South Pacific areas, and water depths corresponding to deep and bottom waters. For most of the samples a broad coupling of Nd and Hf isotopes is observed....
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The first high resolution thallium (Tl) isotope records in two ferromanganese crusts (Fe-Mn crusts), CD29 and D11 from the Pacific Ocean are presented. The crusts record pronounced but systematic changes in 205Tl/203Tl that are unlikely to reflect diagenetic overprinting or changes in isotope fractionation between seawater and Fe-Mn crusts. It appears more likely that the Fe-Mn crusts track the Tl isotope composition of seawater over time. The present-day oceanic residence time of Tl is estimated to be about 20,000??yr, such that the isotopic composition should reflect ocean-wide events. New and published Os isotope data are used to construct age models for these crusts that are consistent with each other and significantly...
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The metalliferous ore deposits of southwest England are associated with biotite-muscovite granites that intruded upper Paleozoic sediments and volcanic rocks at the end of the Hercynian Orogeny. The hydrothermal mineralization can be subdivided into four stages: 1. (1) exoskarns 2. (2) high-temperature tin and tungsten oxide-bearing sheeted greisen bordered veins and Sn-bearing tourmaline veins and breccias 3. (3) polymetallic quartz-tourmaline-chlorite-sulfide-fluorite-bearing fissure veins, which represent the main episode of economic mineralization 4. (4) late-stage, low-temperature polymetallic fluorite veins. U-Pb dating of monazite and xenotime and 40Ar 39Ar dating of muscovite were used to determine emplacement...
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Rhyolites can be highly evolved with Sr contents as low as 0.1 ppm and Rb Sr > 2,000. In contrast, granite batholiths are commonly comprised of rocks with Rb Sr < 10 and only rarely > 100. Mass-balance modelling of source compositions, differentiation and contamination using the trace-element geochemistry of granites are therefore commonly in error because of the failure to account for evolved differentiates that may have been erupted from the system. Rhyolitic magmas with very low Sr concentrations (???1 ppm) cannot be explained by any partial melting models involving typical crustal source compositions. The only plausible mechanism for the production of such rhyolites is Rayleigh fractional crystallization involving...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Chemical Geology
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The sources of non-anthropogenic Pb in seawater have been the subject of debate. Here we present Pb isotope time-series that indicate that the non-anthropogenic Pb budget of the northernmost Pacific Ocean has been governed by ocean circulation and riverine inputs, which in turn have ultimately been controlled by tectonic processes. Despite the fact that the investigated locations are situated within the Asian dust plume, and proximal to extensive arc volcanism, eolian contributions have had little impact. We have obtained the first high-resolution and high-precision Pb isotope time-series of North Pacific deep water from two ferromanganese crusts from the Gulf of Alaska in the NE Pacific Ocean, and from the Detroit...
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The thallium (Tl) concentrations and isotope compositions of various river and estuarine waters, suspended riverine particulates and loess have been determined. These data are used to evaluate whether weathering reactions are associated with significant Tl isotope fractionation and to estimate the average Tl isotope composition of the upper continental crust as well as the mean Tl concentration and isotope composition of river water. Such parameters provide key constraints on the dissolved Tl fluxes to the oceans from rivers and mineral aerosols. The Tl isotope data for loess and suspended riverine detritus are relatively uniform with a mean of ??205Tl = -2.0 ?? 0.3 (??205Tl represents the deviation of the 205Tl/203Tl...