Skip to main content
Advanced Search

Filters: Contacts: Michael B. Wunder (X)

19 results (174ms)   

View Results as: JSON ATOM CSV
thumbnail
In a recent paper published in The Auk, Smith et al. (2009) raised serious concerns over an apparent lack of reproducibility in their study of stable hydrogen isotope values (δDf ) in raptor feathers. The authors based their concerns on results obtained from different laboratories to which they submitted original and blind “repeats” over a multiyear period. A regression of the original sample δD versus “repeat” measurements showed an increase in the magnitude of residuals with increasing δDf , especially for values greater than about −80‰ (Smith et al. 2009: fig. 2). Because of this, the authors “caution against the continued use of δDf for predicting geographic origin, and for addressing important conservation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: The Auk
thumbnail
Clark’s nutcrackers are important seed dispersers for two widely-distributed western North American conifers, whitebark pine and limber pine, which are declining due to outbreaks of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust. Because nutcracker seed dispersal services are key to maintaining viable populations of these imperiled pines, knowledge of movement patterns of Clark’s nutcrackers helps managers understand local extinction risks for these trees. To investigate population structure within Clark’s nutcracker, we developed primers for and characterized 13 polymorphic microsatellite loci. In a screen of 22 individuals from one population, levels of variability ranged from 6 to 15 alleles. No loci were found...
thumbnail
Multiple factors, including limitation in food resources, have been proposed as possible causes for the lack of recovery of the endangered western segment of the Steller sea lion population in the United States. Because maternal body condition has important consequences on fetal development and neonatal survival, the diets of pregnant females may be particularly important in regulating population sizes. We used the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of vibrissae from Steller sea lion pups as an indirect indicator of maternal diets during gestation. Combining these data with isotope data from potential prey species in a Bayesian mixing model, we generated proportional estimates of dietary consumption for key...
thumbnail
Habitat use and feeding behaviors of cryptic animals are often poorly understood. Analyses of stable isotope ratios in animal body tissues can help reveal an individual's location and resource use during tissue growth. We investigated variation in stable isotope ratios of 4 elements (H, C, N, and S) in the hair of a sedentary species of insectivorous bat (Eptesicus fuscus) inhabiting a chemically complex urban landscape. Our objective was to quantify population-level isotopic variation and test for evidence of resource specialization by individuals. Bats were sampled over 3 annual molt cycles at maternity roosts in buildings and variance components analysis was used to test whether intraindividual isotopic variation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Mammalogy
thumbnail
Stable isotope analysis is a useful tool to track animal movements in both terrestrial and marine environments. These intrinsic markers are assimilated through the diet and may exhibit spatial gradients as a result of biogeochemical processes at the base of the food web. In the marine environment, maps to predict the spatial distribution of stable isotopes are limited, and thus determining geographic origin has been reliant upon integrating satellite telemetry and stable isotope data. Migratory sea turtles regularly move between foraging and reproductive areas. Whereas most nesting populations can be easily accessed and regularly monitored, little is known about the demographic trends in foraging populations. The...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecological Applications
thumbnail
We surveyed Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) wintering in the Imperial Valley of California in January 2001, and also recorded the types of crop fields used by plovers in this agricultural landscape. We tallied 4037 plovers in 36 flocks ranging in size from 4 to 596 birds. Plovers were more common on alfalfa and Bermudagrass fields than other field types. Further, most birds were on alfalfa fields that were currently being (or had recently been) grazed, primarily by domestic sheep. Plovers used Bermudagrass fields only after harvest and subsequent burning. Examination of Christmas Bird Count data from 1950–2000 indicated that the Mountain Plover has abandoned its historical wintering areas on the coastal plains...
thumbnail
We used feathers of known origin collected from across the breeding range of a migratory shorebird to test the use of isotope tracers for assigning breeding origins. We analyzed δD, δ13C, and δ15N in feathers from 75 mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) chicks sampled in 2001 and from 119 chicks sampled in 2002. We estimated parameters for continuous-response inverse regression models and for discrete-response Bayesian probability models from data for each year independently. We evaluated model predictions with both the training data and by using the alternate year as an independent test dataset. Our results provide weak support for modeling latitude and isotope values as monotonic functions of one another, especially...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Oecologia
thumbnail
Understanding seasonal distribution and movement patterns of animals that migrate long distances is an essential part of monitoring and conserving their populations. Compared to migratory birds and other more conspicuous migrants, we know very little about the movement patterns of many migratory bats. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), a cryptic, wide-ranging, long-distance migrant, comprise a substantial proportion of the tens to hundreds of thousands of bat fatalities estimated to occur each year at wind turbines in North America. We created seasonally-dynamic species distribution models (SDMs) from 2,753 museum occurrence records collected over five decades in North America to better understand the seasonal geographic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: PLoS ONE
thumbnail
1. Because stable isotope distributions in organic material vary systematically across energy gradients that exist in ecosystems, community and population structures, and in individual physiological systems, isotope values in animal tissues have helped address a broad range of questions in animal ecology. It follows that every tissue sample provides an isotopic profile that can be used to study dietary or movement histories of individual animals. Interpretations of these profiles depend on the assumption that metabolic pools are isotopically well mixed and in equilibrium with dietary resources prior to tissue synthesis, and they extend to the population level by assuming isotope profiles are identically distributed...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Animal Ecology
thumbnail
Nutritional constraints have been proposed as a contributor to population declines in the endangered Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus in some regions of the North Pacific. Isotopic analysis of vibrissae (whiskers) is a potentially useful approach to resolving the nutritional ecology of this species because long-term (up to 8 yr) dietary information is sequentially recorded and metabolically inert once formed. Additionally, vibrissae are grown in utero, potentially offering indirect inference on maternal diet. However, diet reconstruction using isotopic techniques requires a priori knowledge of trophic enrichment factors (TEFs), which can vary relative to diet quality and among animal species. In this study, we...
thumbnail
Detailed information on the nutrition of free-ranging mammals contributes to the understanding of life history requirements, yet is often quite limited temporally for most species. Reliable dietary inferences can be made by analyzing the stable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopic values (δ13C and δ15N) of some consumer tissues; exactly which tissue is utilized dictates the inferential scope. Steller sea lion (SSL) vibrissae are grown continuously without shedding and thus provide a continuous multi-year record of dietary consumption. We applied a novel kernel density approach to compare the δ13C and δ15N values along the length of SSL vibrissae with δ13C and δ15N distributions of potential prey species. This resulted...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Oecologia
thumbnail
Long-distance migration evolved independently in bats and unique migration behaviors are likely, but because of their cryptic lifestyles, many details remain unknown. North American hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus cinereus) roost in trees year-round and probably migrate farther than any other bats, yet we still lack basic information about their migration patterns and wintering locations or strategies. This information is needed to better understand unprecedented fatality of hoary bats at wind turbines during autumn migration and to determine whether the species could be susceptible to an emerging disease affecting hibernating bats. Our aim was to infer probable seasonal movements of individual hoary bats to better...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecological Applications
thumbnail
We explored habitat use in terms of vegetation structure and potential forage availability for mountain plovers (Charadrius montanus) in Park County, Colorado. We quantified the percentage cover of bare ground, percentage cover of shrubs (Chrysothamnus visadiflorus), linear distance to nearest shrub, arthropod biomass, and grasshopper density for 102 plots of 1,963 m2, 51 of which were occupied by plovers and 51 of which were selected randomly within previously-classified potential habitat. We modeled the probability of habitat use by plovers based on these measurements. We further subdivided the occupied plots to model probability of habitat use by adults with broods as compared with use by pre-nesting and post-nesting...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Southwestern Naturalist
thumbnail
Bat specimens held in natural history museum collections can provide insights into the distribution of species. However, there are several important sources of spatial error associated with natural history specimens that may influence the analysis and mapping of bat species distributions. We analyzed the importance of geographic referencing and error correction in species distribution modeling (SDM) using occurrence records of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus). This species is known to migrate long distances and is a species of increasing concern due to fatalities documented at wind energy facilities in North America. We used 3,215 museum occurrence records collected from 1950–2000 for hoary bats in North America....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Acta Chiropterologica
thumbnail
We report movements and home-range sizes of adult Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) with broods on rangeland, agricultural fields, and prairie dog habitats in eastern Colorado. Estimates of home range size (95% fixed kernel) were similar across the three habitats: rangeland (146.1 ha ± 101.5), agricultural fields (131.6 ha ± 74.4), and prairie dog towns (243.3 ha ± 366.3). Our minimum convex polygon estimates of home-range size were comparable to those on rangeland reported by Knopf and Rupert (1996). In addition, movements—defined as the distance between consecutive locations of adults with broods—were equivalent across habitats. However, our findings on prairie dog habitat suggest that home-range size for...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: The Wilson Bulletin
thumbnail
Eighteen of the 124 species of mammals inhabiting Colorado are bats. The unique life history characteristics of bats prevent many people from realizing that they comprise 15 percent of our native mammal fauna. Being fast fliers that are active at night, bats are mostly elusive to human senses except in the early evening hours when they can be seen foraging or when they are seen in their roosting habitat. In addition bats often roost in hard-to-reach, well-hidden places making human encounters with bats rare.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
thumbnail
The use of stable isotopes in animal ecology depends on accurate descriptions of isotope dynamics within individuals. The prevailing assumption that laboratory-derived isotopic parameters apply to free-living animals is largely untested. We used stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) in whole blood from migratory Dunlin (Calidris alpina arcticola) to estimate an in situ turnover rate and individual diet-switch dates. Our in situ results indicated that turnover rates were higher in free-living birds, in comparison to the results of an experimental study on captive Dunlin and estimates derived from a theoretical allometric model. Diet-switch dates from all 3 methods were then used to estimate arrival dates to the Arctic; arrival...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: The Auk
thumbnail
Small-bodied terrestrial animals such as songbirds (Order Passeriformes) are especially vulnerable to hail-induced mortality; yet, hail events are challenging to predict, and they often occur in locations where populations are not being studied. Focusing on nesting grassland songbirds, we demonstrate a novel approach to estimate hail-induced mortality. We quantify the relationship between the probability of nests destroyed by hail and measured Level-III Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) data, including atmospheric base reflectivity, maximum estimated size of hail and maximum estimated azimuthal wind shear. On 22 June 2014, a hailstorm in northern Colorado destroyed 102 out of 203 known nests within our research site....
thumbnail
We surveyed a discrete population of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) in South Park, Park County, Colorado, to determine the size and relative contribution of this geographically isolated area to the global population of plovers. First, we mapped potential plover habitat within South Park based on landform and vegetation descriptors. Second, we identified occupied habitat using observations from a systematic inventory of potential habitat from 1995–1999 and from a study of breeding biology from 2000–2002. Third, we estimated breeding densities within a framework designed specifically for distance sampling. We mapped 82 750 ha of potential habitat. We recorded 2516 plover locations from which we estimated 29 176...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: The Condor


    map background search result map search result map Continental-scale, seasonal movements of a heterothermic migratory tree bat Continental-scale, seasonal movements of a heterothermic migratory tree bat