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Folders: ROOT > ScienceBase Catalog > National and Regional Climate Adaptation Science Centers ( Show direct descendants )

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Aim Spatiotemporal variation in resource availability is a strong driver of animal distributions. In the northern hardwood and boreal forests of the northeastern United States, tree mast events provide resource pulses that drive the population dynamics of small mammals, including the American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a primary songbird nest predator. This study sought to determine whether mast availability ameliorates their abiotic limits, enabling red squirrel elevational distributions to temporarily expand and negatively impact high-elevation songbirds. Location Northeastern United States. Methods We used two independent datasets to evaluate our hypotheses. First, we fit a dynamic occupancy model...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Understanding patterns of species abundance is essential for planning landscape-level conservation. The complex hierarchies of dendritic ecosystems result in different levels of heterogeneity at distinct geographic scales. Species responses to dynamic environmental drivers may also vary spatially depending on their interactions with landscape features. Monitoring abundance by explicitly quantifying their spatial and temporal variation is important for strategic management. We analysed brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) count data collected from 173 sites in western North Carolina between 1989 and 2015. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model that used single- and multi-pass electro-fishing data and characterized...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Observed links between parasites, such as ticks, and climate change have aroused concern for human health, wildlife population dynamics, and broader ecosystem effects. The one-host life history of the winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) links each annual cohort to environmental conditions during three specific time periods when they are predictably vulnerable: spring detachment from hosts, summer larval stage, and fall questing for hosts. We used mixed-effects generalized linear models to investigate the drivers of tick loads carried by moose (Alces alces) relative to these time periods and across 750 moose, 10 years, and 16 study areas in the western United States. We tested for the effects of biotic factors (moose...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Our aim was to describe shifts in autumn and winter harvest distributions of three species of dabbling ducks (blue-winged teal [Spatula discors], mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], and northern pintail [Anas acuta]) in the Central and Mississippi flyways of North America during 1960–2019. We measured shifts in band recovery distributions corrected for changes in hunting season dates and zones by using kernel density estimators to calculate 10 distributional metrics. We then assessed interannual and intraspecific variation by comparing species-specific changes in distributional metrics for 4 months (October–January) and three geographically based subpopulations. During 1960–2019, band recovery distributions shifted west-...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Shellfish harvesting is central to coastal Alaska Native ways of life, and tribes in Southeast Alaska are committed to preserving sustainable and safe access to subsistence foods. However, consumption of non-commercially harvested shellfish puts Alaska Native communities at elevated risk of exposure to shellfish toxins. To address a lack of state or federal toxin testing for subsistence and recreational harvesting, tribes across Southeast Alaska have formed their own toxin testing and ocean monitoring program. In this study, we interviewed environmental managers responsible for tribes' testing and others with shellfish toxin expertise to report on perceptions of barriers to tribally led testing in Southeast Alaska....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
To design research projects that address the information needs of natural resource managers, we need to learn lessons from past projects that tried to do this. We developed an evaluation approach to assess how effective research projects had been at meeting the needs of natural resource managers. We applied our approach to projects funded by the Southeast Climate Adaptation Science Center and looked for characteristics shared by projects that were more effective at meeting the needs of managers. We developed a new survey instrument for evaluating the usefulness of research projects to stakeholders. We surveyed PIs involved in projects funded by SE CASC, their stakeholder partners, and the center’s leadership about...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
The sensitivity of forecast-informed reservoir operating policies to forecast attributes (lead-time and skill) in many-objective water systems has been well-established. However, the viability of forecast-informed operations as a climate change adaptation strategy remains underexplored, especially in many-objective systems with complex trade-offs across interests. Little is known about the relationships between forecast attribute and policy robustness under deep uncertainty in future conditions and the relationships between forecast-informed performance and future hydrologic state. This study explores the sensitivity of forecast-informed policy robustness to forecast lead-time and skill in the outflow management...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Quantifying changes in the probability and magnitude of extreme flooding events is key to mitigating their impacts. While hydrodynamic data are inherently spatially dependent, traditional spatial models, such as Gaussian processes, are poorly suited for modeling extreme events. Spatial extreme value models with more realistic tail dependence characteristics are under active development. They are theoretically justified but give intractable likelihoods, making computation challenging for small datasets and prohibitive for continental-scale studies. We propose a process mixture model (PMM) which specifies spatial dependence in extreme values as a convex combination of a Gaussian process and a max-stable process, yielding...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
This article presents a systematic literature review of publications from 2014 to 2021 using “archaeological site” and “climate change” as keywords, in addition to several terms representing forms of stakeholder engagement. Articles were thematically coded to explore trends at the intersection of climate change, archaeology, and local and Traditional stakeholders. Results show that nearly half of the selected publications did not include local and Traditional stakeholder engagement in studies related to climate adaptation planning for archaeological sites. Synthesis of the results with insights gained from other literature on decolonizing archaeology showed that potential reasons for this gap include (1) the academic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Snow is a major, climate-sensitive feature of the Earth’s surface and catalyst of fundamentally important ecosystem processes. Understanding how snow influences sentinel species in rapidly changing mountain ecosystems is particularly critical. Whereas effects of snow on food availability, energy expenditure, and predation are well documented, we report how avalanches exert major impacts on an ecologically significant mountain ungulate - the coastal Alaskan mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Using long-term GPS data and field observations across four populations (421 individuals over 17 years), we show that avalanches caused 23−65% of all mortality, depending on area. Deaths varied seasonally and were directly...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Cold-water species in temperate lakes face two simultaneous climate-driven ecosystem changes: warming and browning of their waters. Browning refers to reduced transparency arising from increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which absorbs solar energy near the surface. It is unclear whether the net effect is mitigation or amplification of climate warming impacts on suitable oxythermal habitat (<20 °C, >5 mgO/L) for cold-loving species because browning expands the vertical distribution of both cool water and oxygen depletion. We analyzed long-term trends and high-frequency sensor data from browning lakes in New York’s Adirondack region to assess the contemporary status of summertime habitat for lacustrine brook...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Warming water temperatures as a result of climate change pose a major threat to coldwater organisms. However, the rate of warming is not spatially uniform due to surface-ground-water interactions and stream and watershed characteristics. Coldwater habitats that are most resistant to warming serve as thermal refugia and identifying their locations is critical to regional aquatic conservation planning. We quantified the thermal sensitivity of 203 streams providing current and potential habitat for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) across nearly 1000 linear km of their native range in the southern and central Appalachian Mountains region, USA, and characterized their spatial variability with landscape variables available...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Wetland ecosystems hold nearly a third of the global soil carbon pool, but as wetlands rapidly disappear the fate of this stored soil carbon is unclear. The aim of this study was to quantify and then link potential rates of microbial decomposition after vertical drowning of vegetated tidal marshes in coastal Louisiana to known drivers of anaerobic decomposition altered by vegetation loss. Profiles of potential CH4 and CO2 production (surface to 60 cm deep) were measured during anaerobic incubations, organic matter chemistry was assessed with infrared spectroscopy, and soil porewater nutrients and redox potentials were measured in the field along a chronosequence of wetland loss. After vertical drowning, pond soils...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
During grass surveys across the islands of Hawai‘i in 2022, two novel hybrids among non-native Poaceae were found growing on roadsides. Spontaneous hybridization was observed among Chloris barbata and C. divaricata on O‘ahu and among Cenchrus clandestinus and C. setaceus on Hawai‘i island. Morphological evidence initially suggested these plants may be hybrids and molecular analysis using the ITS and rpl32-trnL regions confirmed that the plants are hybrids and identified their parentage. These hybrids are named Chloris × pseudosagrana nothosp. nov. and Cenchrus × peregrinus nothosp. nov. No developed seeds could be found on either of these hybrids and they are suspected to be sterile F1 hybrids. The occurrence of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Life history diversity can significantly affect population dynamics and effects of management actions. For instance, variation in individual responses to environmental variability can reduce extirpation risk to populations, as the portfolio effect dampens temporal variability in abundance. Moreover, differences in habitat use may cause individuals to respond differently to habitat management and climate variability. To explore the role of life history diversity in population trajectories, population models need to incorporate within-population variation. Integrated population modeling (IPM) is a population modeling approach that offers several advantages for sharing information and propagating uncertainty across...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation