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Abstract (from The goal of this study was to assess the importance of the 2007 sea ice retreat for hydrologic conditions on the Alaskan North Slope, and how this may have influenced the outbreak of tundra fires in this region. This study concentrates on two years, 2007 and 1996, with different arctic sea ice conditions and tundra fire activity. The year of 2007 is characterized by a low summer sea ice extent (second lowest) and high tundra fire activity, while 1996 had high sea ice extent, and few tundra fires. Atmospheric lateral boundary forcing from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis drove the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, along with varying...
Mercury and organic carbon concentrations vary dynamically in streamwater at the Sleepers River Research Watershed in Vermont, USA. Total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.53 to 93.8 ng/L during a 3-year period of study. The highest mercury (Hg) concentrations occurred slightly before peak flows and were associated with the highest organic carbon (OC) concentrations. Dissolved Hg (DHg) was the dominant form in the upland catchments; particulate Hg (PHg) dominated in the lowland catchments. The concentration of hydrophobic acid (HPOA), the major component of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), explained 41–98% of the variability of DHg concentration while DOC flux explained 68–85% of the variability in DHg flux,...
The nocturnal drainage flow of air causes significant uncertainty in ecosystem CO2, H2O, and energy budgets determined with the eddy covariance measurement approach. In this study, we examined the magnitude, nature, and dynamics of the nocturnal drainage flow in a subalpine forest ecosystem with complex terrain. We used an experimental approach involving four towers, each with vertical profiling of wind speed to measure the magnitude of drainage flows and dynamics in their occurrence. We developed an analytical drainage flow model, constrained with measurements of canopy structure and SF6 diffusion, to help us interpret the tower profile results. Model predictions were in good agreement with observed profiles of...
Land use and its relation to nutrient concentrations and loading via streams is an important issue in coastal lagoons and embayments worldwide including the Maryland coastal bays system, USA. As in many coastal areas around the globe, declining water quality in the bays is the result of nutrient inputs from the surrounding watershed. In this study, the sources of the nutrient inputs were examined. Monthly concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), ammonium (NH4 +), nitrate (NO3 -), phosphate (PO4 -3), and total phosphorus (TP) were measured in six streams in the St. Martin River basin from July 2006 to January 2008. Current land use information for the basins of each stream was also compiled. Several significant correlations...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
The importance of wetland–stream connectivity has been heightened due to the current dependence of wetland regulatory status on this connectivity, although the importance of wetland function to adjacent stream health has been and will continue to be substantial regardless of government policies and regulations. Multiple government agencies have sought to gauge the impact of Rapanos and related judgments through the intersection of commonly available stream and wetland datasets at the state and national level. However, the limitations of commonly available stream datasets can lead to significant statistical biases at a broad scale, and these limitations complicate the use of these datasets for site-specific regulatory...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Playas are shallow depressional wetlands and the dominant wetland type in the non-glaciated High Plains of the United States. This region is one of the most intensively cultivated regions in the Western Hemisphere, and playas are profoundly impacted by a variety of agricultural activities. Conservation practices promoted through Farm Bills by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) that influence playas and surrounding catchments impact ecosystem functions and related services provided by wetlands in this region. As part of a national assessment, we review effects of agricultural cultivation and effectiveness of USDA conservation programs and practices on ecosystem functions and associated services of playas....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Hydrologic budgets for depressional wetlands require estimates of runoff from watersheds. In the Southern High Plains, where there is little elevation relief, ground surveys provide accurate watershed estimates but are time-consuming and costly. Estimates can be derived at lower cost from DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) and topographical maps, but data resolution and interpretation introduces errors. Other computational methods provide alternatives for estimating watershed area. Two computational methods based on longitudinal distances and elevations are described; minimal distance method and weighted minimal distance method. Twenty playas were ground surveyed to obtain baseline estimates of watershed area. Watershed...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Seasonal snowpack chemistry data from the Rocky Mountain region of the US was examined to identify long-term trends in concentration and chemical deposition in snow and in snow-water equivalent. For the period 1993?2004, comparisons of trends were made between 54 Rocky Mountain Snowpack sites and 16 National Atmospheric Deposition Program wetfall sites located nearby in the region. The region was divided into three subregions: Northern, Central, and Southern. A non-parametric correlation method known as the Regional Kendall Test was used. This technique collectively computed the slope, direction, and probability of trend for several sites at once in each of the Northern, Central, and Southern Rockies subregions....
This report identifies needs and opportunities in the United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) region relative to climate change science, management, and adaptation strategies. The region includes the territories of Guam and American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas (CNMI), and the independent states of Palau, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). This inventory is responsive to the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC) Strategic Science Agenda and its articulation with the region.
Categories: Data, Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Pacific Islands CASC
Black Gold is a collection of nine articles looking at specific individuals, oil fields, issues, and oil companies in the history of Wyoming's oil industry. Individually, each chapter focuses on an important item or incident in that history; together they illustrate patterns in the development of Wyoming's oil industry. The reader will come to see the important roll played by big business and the federal government in Wyoming's oil history. This roll at times contributed to, and at other times retarded, the development of Wyoming's oil industry.
Microtus richardsoni, the water vole, was listed as a sensitive species in Region 2 of the USDA Forest Service in 1994. Historical records indicate water voles were found in the Big Horn Mountains, but little was known about their current status. The purpose of this study was to locate water voles in the Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming, develop a habitat profile, and evaluate the extent to which livestock grazing affects them. Accessible creeks with habitat requirements for water voles were surveyed. Water voles were not captured below 2440 m. Grazed and ungrazed sites occupied by water voles were matched and analyzed for percent plant cover, dry weight biomass, riparian classification, mean stream depth, channel...
Identification of a fuel released into the environment can be difficult due to biodegradation or weathering. Negative electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry was used to screen for unique polar components in a wide variety of commercial hydrocarbon products and mixtures. These fuels produced unique and relatively simple spectra. When applied to hydrocarbon samples from a large, long-term fuel spill in a relatively cool climate in which the alkane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane portions had begun to biodegrade or weather, the polar components in these samples had changed little over time. This technique provided rapid fuel identification on hydrocarbons released into the environment, without sample preparation,...
Studies conducted since the late 1970s have estimated the net energy value (NEV) of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among the studies have resulted in a wide range of estimates. This study identifies the factors causing this wide variation and develops a more consistent estimate. We conclude that the NEV of corn ethanol has been rising over time due to technological advances in ethanol conversion and increased efficiency in farm production. We show that corn ethanol is energy efficient as indicated by an energy output:input ratio of 1.34.