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The Bureau of Land Management offered over 400,000 hectares (one million acres) for geothermal exploration and development in 1975, and figure is expected to double this year. The Energy Research and Development Administration hopes for 10-15,000 megawatts of geothermal energy by 1985, which would require, leasing over 16.3 million hectares (37 million acres) of land, at least half of which is federal land. Since there is an 8 to 8-1/2 year time laf between initial exploration and full field development, there would have to be a ten-fold increase in the amount of federal land leased within the next three years. Seventy percent of geothermal potential, 22.3 million hectares (55 million acres), is on federal lands...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: FWS/OBS
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Four methods were used for marking sea otters (Enhydra lutris) captured and treated during the response to the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill. Colored and numbered flipper tags were placed on each sea otter that was brought to the otter treatment centers. These tags allowed individual recognition and permitted the tracking of individuals through the treatment and holding processes. Recovery of tagged carcasses may provide a crude measure of the fates of rehabilitated otters. Seven sea otters were instrumented with radio transmitters attached to flipper tags as part of a pilot release program. The results of that study were inconclusive. Forty-five sea otters were implanted with radio transmitters as part of a study...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Biological Report
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Described in this guide are the emergent and semi-emergent plants most likely to be found in inland and coastal marshes. The guide is intended for field identification of marsh plants without resources to technical botanical keys. The plants are discussed in seven groups. Within each group the kinds which resemble one another most closely are next to each other. To identify a plant one first finds the group in which it fits, then finds a drawing and description that matches it. Each description is headed by a common name and a scientific name. In parentheses are alternative names.
Categories: Publication; Tags: Resource Publication
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This is the seventh in a series of comprehensive reports on population ecology of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in North America. Banding records for 1961-1975 were used, together with information from previous reports in this series, to estimate annual and average preseason age and sex structure of the mallard population and patterns of harvest distribution and derivation. Age ratios in the pre-season population averaged 0.98 immatures per adult and ranged from 0.75 to 1.44. The adult male per female ration averaged 1.42. The young male per female ratio average 1.01. Geographic and annual differences in recovery distributions were associated with age, sex, and years after banding. Such variation might indicate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Resource Publication
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No abstract available.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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No abstract available.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Although lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were considered extinct in Lake Michigan by the mid 1950's, control of the parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and extensive restocking resulted in an abundance of hatchery-produced lake trout in the lake by the early 1970's. However, no naturally produced yearling or older lake trout have been found in the lake during nearly a decade of assessment sampling. Among the numerous hypotheses proposed to account for this apparent reproductive failure of the planted lake trout, a frequently suggested cause is the well-documented contamination of the fish by toxic substances such as DDT and its metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) at concentrations reported...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Habitat has changed unfavorably during the past 150 y for the desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii, a federally threatened species with declining populations in the Mojave Desert and western Sonoran Desert. To support recovery efforts, we synthesized published information on relationships of desert tortoises with three habitat features (cover sites, forage, and soil) and candidate management practices for improving these features for tortoises. In addition to their role in soil health and facilitating recruitment of annual forage plants, shrubs are used by desert tortoises for cover and as sites for burrows. Outplanting greenhouse-grown seedlings, protected from herbivory, has successfully restored (>50% survival)...
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The Aleutian shield fern Polystichum aleuticum is endemic to the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska and is listed as endangered pursuant to the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Despite numerous efforts to discover new populations of this species, only four known populations are documented to date, and information is needed to prioritize locations for future surveys. Therefore, we incorporated topographical habitat characteristics (elevation, slope, aspect, distance from coastline, and anthropogenic footprint) found at known Aleutian shield fern locations into a Geographical Information System (GIS) model to create a habitat suitability map for the entirety of the Andreaonof Islands. A total of 18 islands contained 489.26...
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In a review of National Fish Hatcheries (NFH), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) identified the need to assess the fate of hatchery-reared fish and their potential effect on the aquatic community (USFWS 1998). Additionally, in the Columbia River Biological Opinion, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) recommended monitoring and evaluating ecological interactions between hatchery and wild fish (NMFS 1999). In 2002, a study was designed to investigate the fate of hatchery-reared fish and to assess habitat use and fish interactions in the Deschutes River, Oregon.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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There are four major components of a stream system that determine the productivity of the fishery (Karr and Dudley 1978). These are: (1) flow regime, (2) physical habitat structure (channel form, substrate distribution, and riparian vegetation), (3) water quality (including temperature), and (4) energy inputs from the watershed (sediments, nutrients, and organic matter). The complex interaction of these components determines the primary production, secondary production, and fish population of the stream reach. The basic components and interactions needed to simulate fish populations as a function of management alternatives are illustrated in Figure I.1. The assessment process utilizes a hierarchical and modular...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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The primary objective of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (33 U.S.C. 1251) is to restore and maintain the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. Section 404 of the Act regulates the discharge of dredged or fill materials into wetlands and represents the primary Federal authority for regulation of wetland alterations. Since its inception, the Section 404 program has been controversial in regard to the extent to which it was intended to provide wetlands regulation. Section 404 requires those who wish to discharge dredged or fill material into waters of the United States, which include many wetlands, to first obtain a Federal permit. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has overall responsibility...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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No abstract available at this time
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish Disease Leaflet
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No abstract available.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Wildlife Leaflet