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Infection by tracheal worms often results in respiratory distress due to their location in the trachea or bronchi and their obstruction of the air passage. Infections by these parasitic nematodes or roundworms in waterbirds, primarily ducks, geese, and swans, are usually due to Cyathostoma bronchialis and infection of land birds are usually due to Syngamus trachea. However, both genera infect a variety of species, including both land and waterbirds. Infections with S. trachea have been more extensively studied than infections with Cyathostoma sp. because of its previous importance as a disease-causing parasite of poultry in many parts of the world. Changes in husbandry practices to modern intensive methods for poultry...
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This report documents results of a cost-effectiveness study of the stream-gaging program In North Dakota. It is part of a nationwide evaluation of the stream-gaging program of the U.S. Geological Survey.One phase of evaluating cost effectiveness is to identify less costly alternative methods of simulating streamflow records. Statistical or hydro logic flow-routing methods were used as alternative methods to simulate streamflow records for 21 combinations of gaging stations from the 94-gaging-station network. Accuracy of the alternative methods was sufficient to consider discontinuing only one gaging station.Operation of the gaging-station network was evaluated by using associated uncertainty in streamflow records....
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Four laboratories involved in the routine analysis of wet-deposition samples participated in an interlaboratory comparison program managed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The four participants were: Illinois State Water Survey central analytical laboratory in Champaign, Illinois; U.S. Geological Survey national water-quality laboratories in Atlanta, Georgia, and Denver, Colorado; and Inland Waters Directorate national water-quality laboratory in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. Analyses of interlaboratory samples performed by the four laboratories from October 1983 through December 1984 were compared.Participating laboratories analyzed three types of interlaboratory samples--natural wet deposition, simulated wet deposition,...
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Catastrophic floods caused by record rainfall occurred in central Texas during August 1-4, 1978. Torrential rain initiated by the remnants of tropical storm Amelia fell over south-central Texas during August 1-3, and very intense rain due to the interaction between the cold front and maritime air mass fell over north-central Texas on August 3-4. Rainfall of more than 48 inches near Medina in south-central Texas established a new United States record of extreme point rainfall for a 72-hour period. Major flooding occurred on the Medina and Guadalupe Rivers. Severe to minor flooding occurred on the Brazos, Llano, Pedernales, and Nueces Rivers. Floods with recurrence intervals in excess of 100 years and recordsetting...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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In April 1985, sand samples were collected from many of the beaches on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, and in July 1985, three bays were surveyed using side-scan sonar and shallow seismic profiling. During that second trip, scuba divers collected sand samples from the surveyed areas. Dingler and others (1986) describes the study; this report presents the grain-size and composition data for the onshore and offshore sand samples. Locations of the onshore samples are plotted on the map of the island, which is reproduced from Normark and others (1985); locations of most of the offshore samples and side-scan sonar interpretations made during the study are plotted on enlargements (A and B, respectively) of Fagaitua and...
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This report is part of a folio of maps of the Walker Lake 1o x 2o quadrangle, California and Nevada, prepared under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program. The folio includes geological, geochemical, and geophysical maps, as well as mineral resources assessment maps, which identify selected known or possible mineral-deposit environments in the quadrangle. The geochemical maps show the distributions of selected individual elements (Chaffee and others, 1988 a, b, c) and the distributions of selected groups of elements (Chaffee, 1988a, b, c). Discussions accompanying the individual element maps are restricted to mineral residences of the individual elements as well as to what types of mineral deposits...
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Ground water provides much of the water supply for residents of Tooele Valley (fig. 1). The protection, development, and wise management of ground-water resources are important to support community growth and to ensure the continued availability of ground water for all users.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Tooele County, Tooele City, Grantsville City, the U.S. Army, and the State of Utah, has been studying the water resources of Tooele Valley since 1913 to define the quality and amount of water in the principal ground-water aquifers. The most recent studies in the 1990s have provided new insights into the hydrology of the valley. This fact sheet presents a synopsis of the recent studies and describes...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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Ground water is an important freshwater source for domestic and livestock uses in southeastern Utah because of the arid climate and unavailability of surface water from the San Juan River. The study area includes about 1,200 square miles in the southeastern corner of Utah (fig. 1). Precipitation on mountainous areas north, south, and east of the study area (fig. 2) seeps into the Navajo and overlying aquifers where the sandstones that contain the aquifers are exposed at the surface along mountain flanks. The ground water then moves slowly away from the mountainous areas toward the area of lowest elevation 109°30' in the region, the San Juan River. The ground water reappears at land surface where it discharges as...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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The southwestern region of the United States is a land of extremes and contrasts. Elevations vary from below sea level in the Imperial Valley of California to mountain peaks approaching 4,000 meters. Landscapes are striking and variable and include mountains, foothills, canyons, deserts, plains, and rivers. The area is arid or semiarid and, depending on the location, may have mild winters and summers, periods of bitter cold, or intervals of intense heat. Climate is inextricably tied to water and its availability. Historically, water varied from abundant to sparse over the span of a year, and adaptations of native plants and animals reflect those extremes. Annual precipitation, usually in the form of rain, varies...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Shawnee Reservoir (locally known as Shawnee Twin Lakes) is a man-made reservoir on South Deer Creek with a drainage area of 32.7 square miles in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma. The reservoir consists of two lakes connected by an equilibrium channel. The southern lake (Shawnee City Lake Number 1) was impounded in 1935, and the northern lake (Shawnee City Lake Number 2) was impounded in 1960. Shawnee Reservoir serves as a municipal water supply, and water is transferred about 9 miles by gravity to a water treatment plant in Shawnee, Oklahoma. Secondary uses of the reservoir are for recreation, fish and wildlife habitat, and flood control. Shawnee Reservoir has a normal-pool elevation of 1,069.0 feet (ft) above North...
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This collection of 37 short papers is the second published chapter of "Geological Survey Research 1972." The papers report on scientific and economic results of current work by members of the Conservation, Geologic, and Water Resources Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey.Chapter A, to be published later in the year, will present a summary of significant results of work done ~n fiscal year 1972, together with lists of investigations in progress, cooperating agencies, and Geological Survey offices."Geological Survey Research 1972" is the thirteenth volume of the annual series Geological Survey Research. The twelve volumes already published are listed below, with their series designations.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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This report is the second in a series of three reports that provide information about high-frequency (HF) nutrient and biogeochemical monitoring in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of northern California (Delta). The purpose of this report is to synthesize the data available from a nutrient and water-quality HF (about every 15 minutes) monitoring network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the northern Delta. In this report, we describe the network and focus on the purpose of each station. We then present and discuss the available data, at various timescales—first at the monthly, seasonal, and inter-annual timescales, and second, for comparison, at the tidal and event timescales. As expected, we determined...
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Potable ground-water supplies throughout the world are contaminated or threatened by advancing plumes containing radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. Currently (1999), the most widely used method of ground-water remediation is a combination of extraction, ex-situ treatment, and discharge of the treated water, commonly known as pump and treat. Pump-and-treat methods are costly and often ineffective in meeting long-term protection standards (Travis and Doty, 1990; Gillham and Burris, 1992; National Research Council, 1994). This fact sheet describes a new and potentially cost-effective technology for removal of organic and inorganic contaminants from ground water. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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State and local water-resource managers need modeling tools to help them manage and protect water-supply resources for both human consumption and ecological needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a decision-support tool to estimate the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflow. The Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool is a model that simulates the daily water balance of a reservoir. The reservoir simulation tool provides estimates of daily outflows from reservoirs and compares the frequency, duration, and magnitude of the volume of outflows from reservoirs with estimates of the unaltered streamflow that would occur if no...
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Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant...
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Most of the land-surface subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas, has occurred as a direct result of groundwater withdrawals for municipal supply, commercial and industrial use, and irrigation that depressured and dewatered the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, thereby causing compaction of the aquifer sediments, mostly in the fine-grained silt and clay layers. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, and Brazoria County Groundwater Conservation District, is one in an annual series of reports depicting water-level altitudes and water-level changes...
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Domestic wells that are not safeguarded by regular water-quality testing provide drinking water for 79 percent of the residents of Geauga County, in northeastern Ohio. Since 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has worked cooperatively with the Board of Commissioners and Geauga County Planning Commission to monitor the quality of groundwater in four commonly used aquifers in county—the glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. A 33-percent growth in population from 1980 to 2009 increased the potential for humans to influence groundwater resources by withdrawing more groundwater, disposing of more human waste near the land surface, treating an expanded network of...
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Ecosystem science is critical to making informed decisions about natural resources that can sustain our Nation’s economic and environmental well-being. Resource managers and policymakers are faced with countless decisions each year at local, regional, and national levels on issues as diverse as renewable and nonrenewable energy development, agriculture, forestry, water supply, and resource allocations at the urbanrural interface. The urgency for sound decisionmaking is increasing dramatically as the world is being transformed at an unprecedented pace and in uncertain directions. Environmental changes are associated with natural hazards, greenhouse gas emissions, and increasing demands for water, land, food, energy,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Circular
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Because of the naturalness of National Parks and because of the public’s strong interest in the parks, the National Park Service (NPS) must gather as much information as needed to help understand and preserve the natural functioning of its ecosystems, and especially of its wildlife. The most useful technique for studying wildlife is radio-tracking, or wildlife telemetry. Radio-tracking is the technique of determining information about an animal through the use of radio signals from or to a device carried by the animal.The basic components of a traditional radio-tracking system are (1) a transmitting subsystem consisting of a radio transmitter, a power source and a propagating antenna, and (2) a receiving subsystem...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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This report is the first in a series of three reports that provide information about high-frequency (HF) nutrient and biogeochemical monitoring in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of northern California (Delta). This first report provides an introduction to the reasons for and fundamental concepts behind collecting HF measurements, and describes the benefits associated with a real-time, continuous, HF, multi-parameter water quality monitoring station network that is co-located with flow stations. It then provides examples of how HF nutrient measurements have improved our understating of nutrient sources and cycling in aquatic systems worldwide, followed by specific examples from the Delta. These examples describe...