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The Christmas copper deposit, located in southern Gila County, Arizona, is part of the major porphyry copper province of southwestern North America. Although Christmas is known for skarn deposits in Paleozoic carbonate rocks, ore-grade porphyry-type copper mineralization also occurs in a composite granodioritic intrusive complex and adjacent mafic volcanic country rocks. This study considers the nature, distribution, and genesis of alteration-mineralization in the igneous rock environment at Christmas. At the southeast end of the Dripping Spring Mountains, the Pennsylvanian Naco Limestone is unconformably overlain by the Cretaceous Williamson Canyon Volcanics, a westward-thinning sequence of basaltic volcanic breccia...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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To measure the natural groundwater recharge process, two sites in south-central Kansas were instrumented with sensors and data microloggers. The atmospheric-boundary layer and the unsaturated and saturated soil zones were monitored as a single regime. Direct observations also were used to evaluate the measurements. Atmospheric sensors included an anemometer, a tipping-bucket rain gage, an air-temperature thermistor, a relative-humidity probe, a net radiometer, and a barometric-pressure transducer. Sensors in the unsaturated zone consisted of soil-temperature thermocouples, tensiometers coupled with pressure transducers and dial gages, gypsum blocks, and a neutron-moisture probe. The saturated-zone sensors consisted...
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Saudi Arabia's northern sand seas are composed dominantly of stable dune systems, even though the modern climate is arid. The stable dunes are large and support a sparse semidesert vegetation. Active dunes are small and commonly confined to the crests of stable dunes; they comprise less than 5 percent of the dunes in the sand seas. Both the stability of the major dune systems and the small percentage of active dunes in the modern environment indicate a significant decrease in the average velocity and frequency of sand-moving winds since the time of stable-dune deposition. Comparison of modern wind directions with dune trends indicates that southwesterly winds responsible for dune formation in the southern and western...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Low-level radioactive solid waste has been buried in trenches at a site near Beatty, Nevada, since 1962. In 1976, as part of a national program, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study of the geohydrology of the waste burial site to provide a basis for estimating the potential for radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste burial trenches. Data collected include meteorological information for calibration of a long-term water budget analysis, soil moisture profiles, soil water potentials, and hydraulic properties of representative unsaturated sediment samples to a depth of about 10 m. The waste burial facility is in the northern Amargosa Desert about 170 km northwest of Las Vegas, NV. The region...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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This compact disc contains 25 digital map data sets covering the State of Oklahoma that may be of interest to the general public, private industry, schools, and government agencies. Fourteen data sets are statewide. These data sets include: administrative boundaries; 104th U.S. Congressional district boundaries; county boundaries; latitudinal lines; longitudinal lines; geographic names; indexes of U.S. Geological Survey 1:100,000, and 1:250,000-scale topographic quadrangles; a shaded-relief image; Oklahoma State House of Representatives district boundaries; Oklahoma State Senate district boundaries; locations of U.S. Geological Survey stream gages; watershed boundaries and hydrologic cataloging unit numbers; and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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The Stroudsburg area is within the Valley and Ridge and Great Valley physiographic provinces, Northampton and Monroe Counties, Pennsylvania, and Warren County, New Jersey. The northeast-trending subparallel valleys and ridges resulted from erosion of folded heterogeneous sedimentary rocks. These are Middle Ordovician to Middle Devonian in age and are more than 17,000 feet thick. Deposition of a thick flysch sequence (Martinsburg Formation of Ordovician age) accompanied onset of Taconic orogenesis. It was followed by deposition of a thick molasse sequence of Silurian and Early Devonian age (continental and marginal-marine clastics--Shawangunk Formation and Bloomsburg Red Beds--overlain by predominantly marginal-marine...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Introduction: The Digital Mapping Techniques '00 (DMT'00) workshop was attended by 99 technical experts from 42 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 28 state geological surveys (see Appendix A). This workshop was similar in nature to the first three meetings, held in June, 1997, in Lawrence, Kansas (Soller, 1997), in May, 1998, in Champaign, Illinois (Soller, 1998a), and in May, 1999, in Madison, Wisconsin (Soller, 1999). This year's meeting was hosted by the Kentucky Geological Survey, from May 17 to 20, 2000, on the University of Kentucky campus in Lexington. As in the previous meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Princeton University, under contract to the Department of Energy , maintains a Tokamak fusion test reactor in New Jersey. The U.S. Geological Survey investigated groundwater flow and estimated the effects of a hypothetical spill of radioactive water at the site on the local groundwater system. The study included test drilling; aquifer testing; measurement of water levels, infiltration capacity, and stream discharge; and a simulation of the hypothetical spill. The Triassic Stockton Formation-a water supply aquifer composed primarily of jointed siltstone and sandstone-underlies the site. The aquifer is confined by overlying weathered bedrock and underlying unjointed rock. Weathered bedrock is overlain by unconsolidated,...
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Newly documented uranium ore in the Pitch Mine occurs chiefly in brecciated Mississippian Leadville Dolomite along the Chester reverse fault zone, and to a lesser extent in sandstone, siltstone, and carbonaceous shale of the Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and in Precambrian granitic rocks and schist. Uranium-mineralized zones are generally thicker, more consistent, and of higher grade in dolomite than in other hosts, and roughly 50 percent of the new reserves are in dolomite. Strong physical control by dolomite is evident, as this is the only lithology that is pervasively brecciated within the fault slices that make up the footwall of the reverse fault zone. Other lithologies tend to either remain unbroken or undergo...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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The primary sources of surface water in Lake and Moody Counties are the Big Sioux River and its intermittent tributaries, and Lakes Herman, Madison, and Brant. Seasonal variations in streamflow and lake levels are directly related to seasonal variations in precipitation. Dissolved-solids concentration in water from streams and lakes increases as streamflow decreases and lake levels decline. Eight glacial aquifers and four bedrock aquifers were delineated in Lake and Moody Counties. The Big Sioux, North Skunk Creek, Pipestone Creek, Battle Creek, and East Fork Vermillion aquifers are composed of glacial outwash. These aquifers are less than 60 feet below land surface, and are in hydraulic connection with the river...
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The drought in South Dakota from 1974-76 and the near drought conditions in 1980-81 have resulted in increased demands on the groundwater resources within many of the irrigated areas of the James River basin in eastern South Dakota. These increases in demand for irrigation water from the glacial aquifer system, and continued requests to the State for additional irrigation well permits, have created a need for a systematic water management program to avoid over-development of this system in the James River basin. An equally spaced grid containing 56 rows and 52 columns used to simulate the glacial aquifer system, was calibrated using water level data collected before significant groundwater development (before 1973)....
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Otisco Lake, the smallest and easternmost of New York State 's Finger Lakes, is the source of water supply for several villages in Onondaga County. In recent years, turbidity and algal blooms have periodically impaired the lake 's use for both water supply and recreation. Principal land uses within the Otisco Lake basin are woodland (39%) and cropland (49%). Conservation practices such as contour farming, strip cropping, and diversion ditches are applied to about 47% of the cropland in the basin. Runoff and concentrations of sediment and nutrients in the five major tributaries, which together drain about 70% of the lake 's watershed, were monitored from November 1981 through September 1983, and sediment and nutrient...
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Water-bearing rocks within the 7 sq mi of Storage Unit I of the Santa Barbara Groundwater Basin, consist of unconsolidated deposits that range in thickness from < 300 ft along the north perimeter of the unit to > 1,000 ft near the Pacific Ocean. The groundwater system was simulated as two horizontal layers separated by a confining bed. The model boundaries coincide with mapped faults on all sides. The faults were considered no-flow boundaries except for the offshore fault that forms the south boundary. This boundary was simulated as a general-head boundary , which allows water to move into and out of the modeled area. The model was calibrated by simulating both steady-state conditions (approximated by July 1978...
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The hydrologic effects of surface coal mining in unlimited areas is difficult to predict, partly because of a lack of adequate data collected before and after mining and reclamation. In order to help provide data to assess the effects of surface mining on the hydrology of small basins in the coal fields of the eastern United States, the U.S. Bureau of Mines sponsored a comprehensive hydrologic study at three sites in the Ohio part of the Eastern Coal Province. These sites are within the unqlaciated part of the Allegheny Plateau, and are representative of similar coal-producing areas in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. The U.S. Geological Survey was responsible for the ground-water phase of the study. The...
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Lake Tuscaloosa, created in 1969 by the impoundment of North River, provides the primary water supply for Tuscaloosa, Alabama , and surrounding areas. This report describes the percent contribution of major tributaries to the mean inflow to the lake; water quality; and changes in water quality in the lake and selected tributaries. During base flow, about 60% of the total flow into Lake Tuscaloosa is contributed by Binion and Carroll Creeks, which drain only 22% of the Lake Tuscaloosa basin. Binion and Carroll Creek basins are underlain primarily by sand and gravel deposits of the Coker Formation. Mean inflow to the lake was 1,150 cu ft/sec during 1983, a wet year, and 450 cu ft/sec during 1985, a relatively dry...
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Laboratory spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements on 29 carbonaceous schist samples from the Wadi Bidah district show that most are associated with very long polarization decays or, equivalently, large time constants. In contrast, measurements on two massive sulfide samples indicate shorter polarization decays or smaller time constants. This difference in time constants for the polarization process results in two differences in the phase spectra in the frequency range of from 0.06 to 1Hz. First, phase values of carbonaceous rocks generally decrease as a function of increasing frequency. Second, phase values of massive sulfide-bearing rocks increase as a function of increasing frequency. These results from...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report