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In this study we examined hormonal responses of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) chicks to experimental variations in energy content and nutritional quality (low or high lipid to protein ratio, LPR) of their food. Starting at the age of 10 days, chicks were fed either high or low LPR fish at 30, 50, 70 and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. After 20 days of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where a baseline sample was taken immediately after taking a chick from the nest, and three additional blood samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. Testosterone and corticosterone titres in plasma were measured via radioimmunoassay. We found that baseline...
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Regional-scale, three-dimensional continuous probability models, were constructed for aspects of redox conditions in the groundwater system of the Central Valley, California. These models yield grids depicting the probability that groundwater in a particular location will have dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations less than selected threshold values representing anoxic groundwater conditions, or will have dissolved manganese (Mn) concentrations greater than selected threshold values representing secondary drinking water-quality contaminant levels (SMCL) and health-based screening levels (HBSL). The probability models were constrained by the alluvial boundary of the Central Valley to a depth of approximately 300 m....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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Robbins Nest is located on the fall line one-half mile below Rocky Gorge Reservoir. During the fall migration, about 8 nets are run on the upper part of the 3 acres (edge of the lawn, the garden, under the Virginia Pines, and the upper edge of the mature oak woods that drop 80 feet to the Patuxent River). Foul weather on weekends, combined with commitments away from home, severely restricted this season's operation. August banding was limited to the weekend of the 23-24th. In September, all-day netting was conducted on the 6-7th and 20-21st, and this was supplemented with before- and after-work banding on 16 other days. October banding also was limited to 4 whole days and parts of 16 others.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: North American Bird Bander
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Wildfire damages to private residences in the United States and elsewhere have increased as a result of expansion of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and other factors. Understanding this unwelcome trend requires analytical frameworks that simulate how various interacting social, economic, and biophysical factors influence those damages. A methodological framework is developed for simulating expected residential property losses from wildfire [E(RLW)], which is a probabilistic monetary measure of wildfire risk to residential properties in the WUI. E(RLW) is simulated for Flathead County, Montana for five, 10-year subperiods covering the period 2010-2059, under various assumptions about future climate change, economic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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The Florida Keys are a chain of islands extending 320 km (199 mi) along the southern edge of the Florida Plateau from Biscayne Bay to the Dry Tortugas (101 km [63 mi] west of Key West). The Florida Reef Tract, a band of living coral reefs paralleling the Keys, extends from Fowey Rocks to the Marquesas and includes about 130 km (81 mi) of bank reefs and 6,000 patch reefs. For convenience, the Keys can be divided into the upper, middle, and lower Keys (Fig. 1).The environmental and economic importance of the Florida Keys is indicated by the many protected or regulated areas, which include several national wildlife refuges, national parks, marine sanctuaries, and state-protected areas (Fig. 1). Because many recreational...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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The California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program (CSCMP) is a collaborative effort to develop comprehensive bathymetric, geologic, and habitat maps and data for California's State Waters. CSCMP began in 2007 when the California Ocean Protection Council (OPC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) allocated funding for high-resolution bathymetric mapping, largely to support the California Marine Life Protection Act and to update nautical charts. Collaboration and support from the U.S. Geological Survey and other partners has led to development and dissemination of one of the world's largest seafloor-mapping datasets. CSCMP provides essential science and data for ocean and coastal management,...
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Abstract—From the mid-1800s to around 1930, monsoonal floods incised an arroyo roughly 100 m wide and 10 m deep along the lower Rio Puerco, NM, from the confluence with the Rio San Jose downstream to the mouth at the Rio Grande, causing sedimentation and flooding downstream. Since the 1930s, the channel has greatly narrowed, a densely vegetated floodplain has developed, the arroyo has partly filled, and downstream sedimentation has greatly decreased. Application of herbicide to a 12-km reach of the arroyo in 2003 to control non-native saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) prompted ongoing studies of channel change in the presence and absence of dense, riparian, woody vegetation. We used digital terrain models and satellite imagery...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Variations in the geochemistry and texture of amphibole phenocrysts erupted from Augustine Volcano in 2006 provide new insights into pre- and syn-eruptive magma storage and mixing. Amphiboles are rare but present in all magma compositions (low- to high-silica andesites) from the 3 month long eruption. Unzoned magnesiohornblende in the high- and low-silica andesites exhibit limited compositional variability, relatively high SiO2 (up to 49·7 wt %), and relatively low Al2O3 (< 11·1 wt %). Intermediate-silica andesites and quenched mafic enclaves contain amphiboles that vary in composition (e.g. SiO2 40·8–48·9 wt %, Al2O3 6·52–15·2 wt %) and classification (magnesiohornblende–magnesiohastingsite–tschermakite). Compositional...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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Aeromagnetic reconnaissance of northeastern Alaska in 1965 covered approximately 100,000 square miles, from lat 64° N. to the Arctic Ocean and from the Alaska-Yukon boundary to long 148°30' W. A magnetic contour map was compiled from data from the 1965 survey and earlier surveys. On the basis of these data, northeastern Alaska may be divided into five areas, each having a distinct magnetic character. A study of specific anomalies within these areas led to the tracing of such features as the Tintina fault zone, Ruby uplift, and Kobuk trench for more than 100 miles. Other features, such as inferred north-trending faults and serpentine belts, had not been identified previously by surface geologic methods. The probable...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin
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A data set was acquired on a shallow mudflat in south San Francisco Bay that featured simultaneous, co-located optical and acoustic sensors for subsequent estimation of suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). The optical turbidity sensor output was converted to SSC via an empirical relation derived at a nearby site using bottle sample estimates of SSC. The acoustic data was obtained using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. Backscatter and noise were combined to develop another empirical relation between the optical estimates of SSC and the relative backscatter from the acoustic velocimeter. The optical and acoustic approaches both reproduced similar general trends in the data and have merit. Some seasonal variation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used increasingly by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals through milling of high grade ores and heap leaching of low grade ores. Of the 98 million kg cyanide (CN) consumed in North America in 1989, about 80% was used in gold mining (Knudson 1990). In Canada, more than 90% of the mined gold is extracted from ores with the cyanidation process. This process consists of leaching gold from the ore as a gold-cyanide complex, and gold being recovered by precipitation (Simovic and Snodgrass 1985). Milling and heap leaching require cycling of millions of liters of alkaline water containing high concentrations of potentially toxic NaCN, free cyanide,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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The Boulder River watershed is one of many watersheds in the western United States where historical mining has left a legacy of acid mine drainage and elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements. Abandoned mine lands commonly are located on or affect Federal land. Cleaning up these Federal lands will require substantial investment of resources. As part of a cooperative effort with Federal land-management agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented an Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative in 1997. The goal of the initiative was to use the watershed approach to develop a strategy for gathering and communicating the scientific information needed to formulate effective and cost-efficient remediation of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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Organic compounds are removed from the atmosphere and deposited to the earth's surface via precipitation. In this study, we quantified variations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in precipitation during storm events at the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, a forested watershed in central Pennsylvania (USA). Precipitation samples were collected consecutively throughout the storm during 13 events, which spanned a range of seasons and synoptic meteorological conditions, including a hurricane. Further, we explored factors that affect the temporal variability by considering relationships of DOC in precipitation with atmospheric and storm characteristics. Concentrations and chemical composition of DOC changed considerably...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Aliquots of seven different reference materials were distributed for an interlaboratory comparison of stable nitrogen-isotope-ratio measurements. Results from 15 laboratories were compiled and evaluated selectively to yield provisional values of 515N for each material, i, with respect to atmospheric N2 (o1SN,7air). The 515N values reported by the different laboratories are correlated in such a way that some of the major discrepancies may be removed by normalization (/. e., by altering the length of the ô N scale for each laboratory by an amount defined by local measurements of reference materials with extreme values).
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Reconstructing climates of the past relies on a variety of evidence from a large number of sites to capture the varied features of climate and the spatial heterogeneity of climate change. This review summarizes available information from diverse Holocene paleoenvironmental records across eastern Beringia (Alaska, westernmost Canada and adjacent seas), and it quantifies the primary trends of temperature- and moisture-sensitive records based in part on midges, pollen, and biogeochemical indicators (compiled in the recently published Arctic Holocene database, and updated here to v2.1). The composite time series from these proxy records are compared with new summaries of mountain-glacier and lake-level fluctuations,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Quaternary Science Reviews
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These mosaics, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, provide lidar-derived first-surface and bare-earth topography for the Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas. Elevation measurements were acquired by the second-generation Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL-B) on January 11, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, and 29, 2014, in cooperation with the National Park Service – Gulf Coast Network.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Because of the naturalness of National Parks and because of the public’s strong interest in the parks, the National Park Service (NPS) must gather as much information as needed to help understand and preserve the natural functioning of its ecosystems, and especially of its wildlife. The most useful technique for studying wildlife is radio-tracking, or wildlife telemetry. Radio-tracking is the technique of determining information about an animal through the use of radio signals from or to a device carried by the animal.The basic components of a traditional radio-tracking system are (1) a transmitting subsystem consisting of a radio transmitter, a power source and a propagating antenna, and (2) a receiving subsystem...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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New interpretations of the nature of the Rio Grande rift and pre-existing rocks in the northeast Tusas Mountains region are derived from new and existing gravity and aeromagnetic data. 12-15 mGal amplitude gravity lows are interpreted to mainly reflect large thicknesses of the upper Oligocene to upper Miocene, syn-rift Los Pinos Formation and possibly significant amounts of the Eocene El Rito Formation. The Broke Off Mountain sub basin, named after the location of its greatest inferred depth, is interpreted to be a ~40 km long and ~13 km wide structure elongated in a northwest trend at the western margin of the San Luis Basin. The sub basin is interpreted to contain a maximum combined thickness of 900-2300 m of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Increasingly, groundwater management requires more accurate hydrogeologic frameworks for groundwater models. These complex issues have created the demand for innovative approaches to data collection. In complicated terrains, groundwater modelers benefit from continuous high‐resolution geologic maps and their related hydrogeologic‐parameter estimates. The USGS and its partners have collaborated to use airborne geophysical surveys for near‐continuous coverage of areas of the North Platte River valley in western Nebraska. The survey objectives were to map the aquifers and bedrock topography of the area to help improve the understanding of groundwater‐surface‐water relationships, leading to improved water management...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Groundwater environments provide habitats for diverse microbial communities, and although Archaea usually represent a minor fraction of communities, they are involved in key biogeochemical cycles. We analysed the archaeal diversity within a mixed carbonate-rock/siliciclastic-rock aquifer system, vertically from surface soils to subsurface groundwater including aquifer and aquitard rocks. Archaeal diversity was also characterized along a monitoring well transect that spanned surface land uses from forest/woodland to grassland and cropland. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that only a few surface soil-inhabiting Archaea were present in the groundwater suggesting a restricted input from the surface. Dominant groups...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Archaea