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A collection of 39 isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides, which cause anthracnose on strawberry, was grouped into species based on the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-PCR). All isolates used had previously been identified according to classical taxonomic morphology. Ap-PCR amplification of genomic DNA using four different primers allowed for reliable differentiation between isolates of C. acutatum, C. fragariae and two genotypes of C. gloeosporioides. Fifteen of the 18 C. acutatum isolates were very similar, although three isolates which produced a red pigment had distinctly different banding patterns. Nearly identical banding patterns were observed for all nine...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Mycological Research
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In vitro blood O2 equilibrium curves were constructed at 9, 15, 18, and 21 °C from temperature-acclimated northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis. At low (<1 mm Hg, 1 mm Hg = 133.32 Pa), P50s generally showed variable increases with temperature from 3.6 mm Hg at 9 °C to 8.7 mm Hg at 21 °C, leading to whole-blood temperature effects (ΔH, kilocalories per mole O2) ranging from a low +4.4 at 15–18 °C to a peak −21.2 at 18–21 °C. High- (7.6 mm Hg) conditions decreased blood pH and increased P50s at each temperature (Bohr factor). Bohr factors (Φ) ranged from −0.46 at 21 °C to −0.70 at 18 °C. Considered together, ΔH and Φ values suggest an optimal temperature range of 15–18 °C for hemoglobin O2 loading and unloading...
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Strepsipterans are a group of insects with a gruesome life history and an enigmatic evolutionary past. Called ‘twisted-wing parasites’, they are minute parasitoids with a very distinct morphology (Figure 1). Alternatively thought to be related to ichneumon wasps, Diptera (flies), Coleoptera (beetles), and even Neuroptera (net-winged insects) (Pohl and Beutel, 2013); the latest genetic and morphological data support the sister order relationship of Strepsiptera and Coleoptera (Niehuis et al., 2012). Strepsipterans are highly modified, males having two hind wings and halteres instead of front wings or elytra. Unlike most parasitoids, they develop inside active, living insects who are sexually sterilized but not killed...
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Trends in long-term water-quality and streamflow data from six water-quality-monitoring stations within three major river basins in Massachusetts and Rhode Island that flow into Narragansett Bay and Little Narragansett Bay were evaluated for water years 1979–2015. In this study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, the Rhode Island Water Resources Board, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, water-quality and streamflow data were evaluated with a Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season smoothing method, which removes the effects of year-to-year variation in water-quality conditions due to variations in streamflow...
Cultivated lands in the U.S. Midwest have been affected by soil erosion, causing soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution in the landscape and other environmental and agricultural problems. The importance of SOC redistribution on soil productivity and crop yield, however, is still uncertain. In this study, we used a model framework, which includes the Unit Stream Power-based Erosion Deposition (USPED) and the Tillage Erosion Prediction (TEP) models, to understand the soil and SOC redistribution caused by water and tillage erosion in two agricultural fields in the U.S. Midwest. This model framework was evaluated for different digital elevation model (DEM) spatial resolutions (10-m, 24-m, 30-m, and 56-m) and topographic...
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Sorption of sulfamethazine (SMN) and sulfathiazole (STZ) was investigated in three soils, a North Carolina loamy sand, an Iowa sandy loam, and a Missouri loam, under various pH conditions. A significant increase in the sorption coefficient (KD) was observed in all three soils, as the sulfonamides converted from an anionic form at higher pH to a neutral/cationic form at lower pH. Above pH 7.5, sulfonamides exist primarily in anionic form and have higher aqueous solubility and no cationic character, thereby consequently leading to lower sorption to soils. The effect of speciation on sorption is not the same for all sulfonamides; it is a function of the pH of the soil and the pKa of the sulfonamides. The results indicate...
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Arsenic (As) distribution and toxicology in the environment is a serious issue, with millions of individuals worldwide being affected by As toxicosis. Sources of As contamination are both natural and anthropogenic and the scale of contamination ranges from local to regional. There are many areas of research that are being actively pursued to address the As contamination problem. These include new methods of screening for As in the field, determining the epidemiology of As in humans, and identifying the risk of As uptake in agriculture. Remediation of As-affected water supplies is important and research includes assessing natural remediation potential as well as phytoremediation. Another area of active research is...
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In this study we examined hormonal responses of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) chicks to experimental variations in energy content and nutritional quality (low or high lipid to protein ratio, LPR) of their food. Starting at the age of 10 days, chicks were fed either high or low LPR fish at 30, 50, 70 and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. After 20 days of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where a baseline sample was taken immediately after taking a chick from the nest, and three additional blood samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. Testosterone and corticosterone titres in plasma were measured via radioimmunoassay. We found that baseline...
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Regional-scale, three-dimensional continuous probability models, were constructed for aspects of redox conditions in the groundwater system of the Central Valley, California. These models yield grids depicting the probability that groundwater in a particular location will have dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations less than selected threshold values representing anoxic groundwater conditions, or will have dissolved manganese (Mn) concentrations greater than selected threshold values representing secondary drinking water-quality contaminant levels (SMCL) and health-based screening levels (HBSL). The probability models were constrained by the alluvial boundary of the Central Valley to a depth of approximately 300 m....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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Robbins Nest is located on the fall line one-half mile below Rocky Gorge Reservoir. During the fall migration, about 8 nets are run on the upper part of the 3 acres (edge of the lawn, the garden, under the Virginia Pines, and the upper edge of the mature oak woods that drop 80 feet to the Patuxent River). Foul weather on weekends, combined with commitments away from home, severely restricted this season's operation. August banding was limited to the weekend of the 23-24th. In September, all-day netting was conducted on the 6-7th and 20-21st, and this was supplemented with before- and after-work banding on 16 other days. October banding also was limited to 4 whole days and parts of 16 others.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: North American Bird Bander
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Wildfire damages to private residences in the United States and elsewhere have increased as a result of expansion of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and other factors. Understanding this unwelcome trend requires analytical frameworks that simulate how various interacting social, economic, and biophysical factors influence those damages. A methodological framework is developed for simulating expected residential property losses from wildfire [E(RLW)], which is a probabilistic monetary measure of wildfire risk to residential properties in the WUI. E(RLW) is simulated for Flathead County, Montana for five, 10-year subperiods covering the period 2010-2059, under various assumptions about future climate change, economic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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The Florida Keys are a chain of islands extending 320 km (199 mi) along the southern edge of the Florida Plateau from Biscayne Bay to the Dry Tortugas (101 km [63 mi] west of Key West). The Florida Reef Tract, a band of living coral reefs paralleling the Keys, extends from Fowey Rocks to the Marquesas and includes about 130 km (81 mi) of bank reefs and 6,000 patch reefs. For convenience, the Keys can be divided into the upper, middle, and lower Keys (Fig. 1).The environmental and economic importance of the Florida Keys is indicated by the many protected or regulated areas, which include several national wildlife refuges, national parks, marine sanctuaries, and state-protected areas (Fig. 1). Because many recreational...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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The California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program (CSCMP) is a collaborative effort to develop comprehensive bathymetric, geologic, and habitat maps and data for California's State Waters. CSCMP began in 2007 when the California Ocean Protection Council (OPC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) allocated funding for high-resolution bathymetric mapping, largely to support the California Marine Life Protection Act and to update nautical charts. Collaboration and support from the U.S. Geological Survey and other partners has led to development and dissemination of one of the world's largest seafloor-mapping datasets. CSCMP provides essential science and data for ocean and coastal management,...
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Abstract—From the mid-1800s to around 1930, monsoonal floods incised an arroyo roughly 100 m wide and 10 m deep along the lower Rio Puerco, NM, from the confluence with the Rio San Jose downstream to the mouth at the Rio Grande, causing sedimentation and flooding downstream. Since the 1930s, the channel has greatly narrowed, a densely vegetated floodplain has developed, the arroyo has partly filled, and downstream sedimentation has greatly decreased. Application of herbicide to a 12-km reach of the arroyo in 2003 to control non-native saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) prompted ongoing studies of channel change in the presence and absence of dense, riparian, woody vegetation. We used digital terrain models and satellite imagery...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Variations in the geochemistry and texture of amphibole phenocrysts erupted from Augustine Volcano in 2006 provide new insights into pre- and syn-eruptive magma storage and mixing. Amphiboles are rare but present in all magma compositions (low- to high-silica andesites) from the 3 month long eruption. Unzoned magnesiohornblende in the high- and low-silica andesites exhibit limited compositional variability, relatively high SiO2 (up to 49·7 wt %), and relatively low Al2O3 (< 11·1 wt %). Intermediate-silica andesites and quenched mafic enclaves contain amphiboles that vary in composition (e.g. SiO2 40·8–48·9 wt %, Al2O3 6·52–15·2 wt %) and classification (magnesiohornblende–magnesiohastingsite–tschermakite). Compositional...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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Aeromagnetic reconnaissance of northeastern Alaska in 1965 covered approximately 100,000 square miles, from lat 64° N. to the Arctic Ocean and from the Alaska-Yukon boundary to long 148°30' W. A magnetic contour map was compiled from data from the 1965 survey and earlier surveys. On the basis of these data, northeastern Alaska may be divided into five areas, each having a distinct magnetic character. A study of specific anomalies within these areas led to the tracing of such features as the Tintina fault zone, Ruby uplift, and Kobuk trench for more than 100 miles. Other features, such as inferred north-trending faults and serpentine belts, had not been identified previously by surface geologic methods. The probable...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin


map background search result map search result map Grizzly bear food plant/habitat suitability model for the Atlin Lake and Taku River watersheds (Version 1.0) Grizzly bear food plant/habitat suitability model for the Atlin Lake and Taku River watersheds (Version 1.0)