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Increasingly, groundwater management requires more accurate hydrogeologic frameworks for groundwater models. These complex issues have created the demand for innovative approaches to data collection. In complicated terrains, groundwater modelers benefit from continuous high‐resolution geologic maps and their related hydrogeologic‐parameter estimates. The USGS and its partners have collaborated to use airborne geophysical surveys for near‐continuous coverage of areas of the North Platte River valley in western Nebraska. The survey objectives were to map the aquifers and bedrock topography of the area to help improve the understanding of groundwater‐surface‐water relationships, leading to improved water management...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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A high-resolution column of 57 loess samples was collected from the Dry Creek archaeological site in the Nenana River Valley in central Alaska. Numerical grain-size partitioning using a mixed Weibull function was performed on grain-size distributions to obtain a reconstructed record of wind intensity over the last ~15,000 yr. Two grain-size components were identified, one with a mode in the coarse silt range (C1) and the other ranging from medium to very coarse sand (C2). C1 dominates most samples and records regional northerly winds carrying sediment from the Nenana River. These winds were strong during cold intervals, namely, the Carlo Creek glacial readvance (14.2–14 ka), a late Holocene Neoglacial period (4.2–2.7...
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Groundwater environments provide habitats for diverse microbial communities, and although Archaea usually represent a minor fraction of communities, they are involved in key biogeochemical cycles. We analysed the archaeal diversity within a mixed carbonate-rock/siliciclastic-rock aquifer system, vertically from surface soils to subsurface groundwater including aquifer and aquitard rocks. Archaeal diversity was also characterized along a monitoring well transect that spanned surface land uses from forest/woodland to grassland and cropland. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that only a few surface soil-inhabiting Archaea were present in the groundwater suggesting a restricted input from the surface. Dominant groups...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Archaea
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Water-quality data for discharges from 140 abandoned mines in the Bituminous and Anthracite Coalfields of Pennsylvania illustrate relations among pH, sulfate, and dissolved metal concentrations. The pH for the 140 samples ranged from 2.7 to 7.3, with two modes at pH 2.5 to 4 (acidic) and 6 to 7 (near neutral). Generally, flow rates were smaller and solute concentrations were greater for low-pH samples; flow rates increased with pH. Although the pH distribution was similar for the bituminous and anthracite subsets, the bituminous discharges had smaller median flow rates, greater concentrations of sulfate, iron, and aluminum, and smaller concentrations of barium and lead than anthracite discharges with the same pH...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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This report is the first in a series of three reports that provide information about high-frequency (HF) nutrient and biogeochemical monitoring in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of northern California (Delta). This first report provides an introduction to the reasons for and fundamental concepts behind collecting HF measurements, and describes the benefits associated with a real-time, continuous, HF, multi-parameter water quality monitoring station network that is co-located with flow stations. It then provides examples of how HF nutrient measurements have improved our understating of nutrient sources and cycling in aquatic systems worldwide, followed by specific examples from the Delta. These examples describe...
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Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) commonly stimulate phytoplankton production in lakes, but recent observations from lakes from an agricultural region suggest that nitrate may have a subsidy‐stress effect on chlorophyll a (Chl a). It is unclear, however, how generalizable this effect might be. Here, we analyzed a large water quality dataset of 2385 lakes spanning 60 regions across 17 states in the Northeastern and Midwestern U.S. to determine if N subsidy‐stress effects on phytoplankton are common and to identify regional landscape characteristics promoting N stress effects in lakes. We used a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework to test our hypothesis that Chl a–total N (TN) threshold relationships would be common...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Limnology and Oceanography
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Papers published over 100 years since the beginning of the scientific study of drug metabolism in birds were reviewed. Birds were found to be able to accomplish more than 20 general biotransformation reactions in both functionalization and conjugation. Chickens were the primary subject of study but over 30 species of birds were used. Large species differences in drug metabolism exist between birds and mammals as well as between various birds, these differences were mostly quantitative. Qualitative differences were rare. On the whole, drug metabolism studies in birds have been neglected as compared with similar studies on insects and mammals. The uniqueness of birds and the advantages of using birds in drug metabolism...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Pharmacology
Abstract (from http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/11-2296.1): Physiological tolerance of environmental conditions can influence species-level responses to climate change. Here, we used species-specific thermal tolerances to predict the community responses of ant species to experimental forest-floor warming at the northern and southern boundaries of temperate hardwood forests in eastern North America. We then compared the predictive ability of thermal tolerance vs. correlative species distribution models (SDMs) which are popular forecasting tools for modeling the effects of climate change. Thermal tolerances predicted the responses of 19 ant species to experimental climate warming at the southern site,...
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Concentrations of twenty-seven elements, including naturally-occurring water-quality contaminants arsenic, chromium, and uranium, were measured in 217 samples of alluvium and rock from the western Mojave Desert, southern California, using portable (pXRF) and laboratory (LXRF) X-ray fluorescence. Comparison of measurements with NIST-traceable standards was good, although pXRF overestimated iron compared to LXRF. Results suggest pXRF survey data are sufficiently accurate to assess regional geochemical differences in geologic-source terrains. Principal component analysis showed rubidium and potassium were associated with alluvium eroded from felsic terrain, while iron, copper, chromium, and to a lesser extent titanium,...
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With growing concern for the depletion of soil resources, conventional soil maps need to be updated and provided at finer and finer resolutions to be able to support spatially explicit human–landscape models. Three US soil point datasets—the National Cooperative Soil Survey Characterization Database, the National Soil Information System, and the Rapid Carbon Assessment dataset—were combined with a stack of over 200 environmental datasets and gSSURGO polygon maps to generate complete coverage gridded predictions at 100-m spatial resolution of six soil properties (percentage of organic C, total N, bulk density, pH, and percentage of sand and clay) and two US soil taxonomic classes (291 great groups [GGs] and 78 modified...
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The macronutrients that Arctic herbivores invest in their offspring are derived from endogenous reserves of fat and protein (capital) that females build prior to the period of investment or from foods they consume concurrently with investment (income). The relative contribution from each source can be influenced by temporal and environmental constraints on a female's ability to forage on Arctic breeding areas. Warming temperatures and advancing Arctic phenology may alter those constraints. From 2011–2014, we examined relationships among spring temperature, timing of migration and reproduction, and the sources of nutrients females deposited in eggs for three sympatric species of geese that nested in northern Alaska....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Global Change Biology
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Studying habitat overlap between sympatric species is one of the best ways to identify interspecies relationships and to direct conservation efforts so that multiple species can benefit. However, studies exploring interspecies relationships are very limited in Nepal, making it difficult for the government of Nepal and conservation partners to manage wildlife in their habitats, especially in Himalayan protected areas. In this study, we identified habitat overlap between Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens) as well as important habitat types for both species in the Makalu Barun National Park, Nepal using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling. GPS points of species occurrence were collected...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: PLoS ONE
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Phylogenetic relationships among swifts of the morphologically conservative genus Chaetura were studied using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Taxon sampling included all species and 21 of 30 taxa (species and subspecies) within Chaetura. Our results indicate that Chaetura is monophyletic and support the division of the genus into the two subgenera previously identified using plumage characters. However, our genetic data, when considered in combination with phenotypic data, appear to be at odds with the current classification of some species of Chaetura. We recommend that C. viridipennis, currently generally treated as specifically distinct from C. chapmani, be returned to its former status as C. chapmani...
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This field guide for the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly 2017 focuses on volcaniclastic sediments from Mount St. Helens in Washington and Mount Hood in Oregon. The trip spends four days in the field and includes nine stops at each volcano. For completeness, this guidebook also includes sixteen optional stops in the Mount St. Helens area and three in the Mount Hood area. These two volcanoes provide excellent depositional records of the broad spectrum of volcanic hazards that involve the flow or fall of volcaniclastic particles. At the field-trip stops we will contrast and compare the different types of deposits—sediments that can be frustratingly...
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Reserve design is a process that can address ecological, social, and political factors to identify parcels of land needed to sustain wildlife populations and other natural resources. Acquisition of parcels for a large terrestrial reserve is difficult because it typically occurs over a long timeframe and thus invokes consideration of future conditions such as climate and urbanization changes. In central Florida, a new protected area, the Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge, has been authorized by the United States Government. The new refuge will host important threatened and endangered species and habitats, as well as be located to allow for species adaptation from climate change impacts. For this study...
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In most drylands, biological soil crusts (biocrusts), an assemblage of lichens, bryophytes, fungi, green algae, and cyanobacteria, are critical to healthy ecosystem function. However, they are extremely sensitive to disturbance and attempts to facilitate their recovery have had variable success. In this study, we applied soil amendments designed to improve soil surface stability and accelerate biocrust recovery on an area disturbed by oil/gas exploration vehicles. Treatments included: 1) Control (one time water only); 2) Biocrust‐only: biocrust inoculum + nutrients in water; 3) Polyacrylamide gels (PAM; which are known to stabilize soils) + biocrust inoculum + nutrients in water; 4) Gypsum + biocrust inoculum +...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Restoration Ecology
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Cold-water corals provide critical habitats for a multitude of marine species, but are understudied relative to tropical corals. Primnoa pacifica is a cold-water coral prevalent throughout Alaskan waters, while another species in the genus, Primnoa resedaeformis, is widely distributed in the Atlantic Ocean. This study examined the V4-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene after amplifying and pyrosequencing bacterial DNA from samples of these species. Key differences between the two species’ microbiomes included a robust presence of bacteria belonging to the Chlamydiales order in most of the P. pacifica samples, whereas no more than 2% of any microbial community from P. resedaeformiscomprised these bacteria. Microbiomes...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Scientific Reports


map background search result map search result map Variations in late Quaternary wind intensity from grain-size partitioning of loess deposits in the Nenana River Valley, Alaska Recent NDVI-Based Variation in Growth of Boreal Intact Forest Landscapes and Its Correlation with Climatic Variables Impacts of Climate Warming on River Ice Break-up and Snowmelt Freshet Processes on the Porcupine River in Northern Yukon Variations in late Quaternary wind intensity from grain-size partitioning of loess deposits in the Nenana River Valley, Alaska Impacts of Climate Warming on River Ice Break-up and Snowmelt Freshet Processes on the Porcupine River in Northern Yukon Recent NDVI-Based Variation in Growth of Boreal Intact Forest Landscapes and Its Correlation with Climatic Variables