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For most avian species, social behaviour is critically important for survival and reproductive success. Many social behaviours in birds are culturally transmitted, and as bird populations decline across the globe, important elements of these behaviours may be lost. The Hawaiian crow or 'alalā, Corvus hawaiiensis, is a socially complex avian species that is currently extinct in the wild. As in other oscine passerines, vocalizations in the 'alalā may be culturally transmitted. We compared the vocal repertoire of three of the last four wild 'alalā pairs from the early 1990s to three current captive pairs on the Island of Hawai'i to determine how acoustic behaviour has been affected by changes in their social and physical...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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Prebreeding habitat selection in birds can often be explained in part by habitat characteristics. However, females may also select habitats on the basis of fidelity to areas of previous reproductive success or use by conspecifics. The relative influences of sociobehavioural attributes versus habitat characteristics in habitat selection has been primarily investigated in songbirds, while less is known about how these factors affect habitat selection processes in migratory waterfowl. Animal resource selection models often exhibit much unexplained variation; spatial patterns driven by social and behavioural characteristics may account for some of this. We radiomarked female lesser scaup, Aythya affinis, in the southwestern...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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Sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, in an isolated montane basin near Gunnison, Colorado differ in several morphological and behavioural traits from conspecifics studied in other areas of the species' range. Both sexes in Gunnison are smaller than sage grouse elsewhere, and males possess differences in feather morphology as well. The mating behaviour of male sage grouse in three populations was examined to determine whether male strut displays of Gunnison sage grouse were behaviourally distinct. Behavioural analyses revealed Gunnison males perform strut displays at a slower rate than males in the two other sage grouse populations sampled. In addition, Gunnison males' strut displays contain unique visual and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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Despite their importance for understanding predator–prey interactions, factors that affect predator evasion behaviours of offspring of large ungulates are poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the influence of selection and availability of escape cover and maternal presence on predator evasion by white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, fawns in the northern Great Plains, U.S.A. We observed 45 coyote, Canis latrans, chases of fawns, and we participated in 83 human chases of fawns during 2007–2009, of which, 19 and 42 chases, respectively, ended with capture of the fawn. Evasive techniques used by fawns were similar for human and coyote chases. Likelihood of a white-tailed deer fawn escaping capture,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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Pair bonds can provide social benefits to long-term monogamous species alongside their benefits for reproduction. However, little is known about when these bonds form, in particular how long they are present before breeding. Previous studies of pair formation in long-term monogamous birds have been rather data-limited, but for many migratory birds they report pair formation on the wintering grounds. We provide the first systematic investigation of prebreeding association patterns of long-term monogamous pairs by examining entire life histories based on tracking data of migratory whooping cranes, Grus americana. We found that a substantial portion (62%) of breeding pairs started associating at least 12 months before...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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Fission–fusion dynamics appear common among temperate bats where females form roost groups that change in size and composition, as females switch roosts almost daily. One hypothesis for frequent roost switching is that females move to find suitable thermal conditions as ambient conditions change. Tests of this hypothesis have, however, been conducted mostly at roosts in artificial structures where microclimate is relatively stable. The goal of our study was to determine whether roost switching and roost use by northern long-eared bats, Myotis septentrionalis, that roost in trees are related to ambient conditions. We used generalized linear fixed effects models to explore the influence of roost characteristics and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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The annual 29 000 km long migration of the bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri, around the Pacific Ocean traverses what is arguably the most complex and seasonally structured atmospheric setting on Earth. Faced with marked variation in wind regimes and storm conditions across oceanic migration corridors, individuals must make critical decisions about when and where to fly during nonstop flights of a week's duration or longer. At a minimum, their decisions will affect wind profitability and thus reduce energetic costs of migration; in the extreme, poor decisions or unpredictable weather events will risk survival. We used satellite telemetry to track the annual migration of 24 bar-tailed godwits and analysed...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, and the tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, by temporarily removing fertile females on two mornings during egg laying. In both species, experimental males usually attempted to copulate with the female immediately after her reappearance, suggesting that they experienced the absence...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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Prey-specific anti-predatory behaviour under different degrees of structural complexity determines foraging success of predators. The behaviour of piscivorous fish (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides and northern pike, Esox lucius) and their prey (bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas) were quantified in 60-min experiments in laboratory pools (2 multiplied by 4 m in diameter, 0 multiplied by 5 m deep) with artificial vegetation at densities of 0, 50, 250, and 1000 stems/m2. Largemouth bass switched predatory tactics from searching to ambushing as plant density increased whereas northern pike always used ambushing. At high plant density, both predators captured minnows, but...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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A description of the social network of a population aids us in understanding dispersal, the spread of disease, and genetic structure in that population. Many animal populations can be classified as fission–fusion societies, whereby groups form and separate over time. Examples discussed in the literature include ungulates, primates and cetaceans (Lott and Minta, 1983, Whitehead et al., 1991, Henzi et al., 1997, Christal et al., 1998 and Chilvers and Corkeron, 2002). In this study, we use a heuristic simulation model to illustrate potential problems in applying traditional techniques of association analysis to fission–fusion societies and propose a new index of association: the fission decision index (FDI). We compare...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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Buff-breasted sandpipers use a variety of mating tactics to acquire mates, including remaining at a single lek for most of the breeding season, attending multiple leks during the season, displaying solitarily or displaying both on leks and solitarily. We found that differences in body size, body condition, fluctuating asymmetry scores, wing coloration, territory location and behaviour (attraction, solicitation and agonistic) did not explain the observed variation in mating tactics used by males. Which males abandoned versus returned to leks was also not related to morphology or behaviour, and there was no tendency for males to join leks that were larger or smaller than the lek they abandoned. These results suggest...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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The detection of stress arising from parasitic infection bySarcoptes scabieisand from pregnancy is explored, using a fractal analysis of head lifting behaviour and feeding–non-feeding activity sequences in female Spanish ibex,Capra pyrenaica, under natural conditions. Because organisms under stress increase their metabolic rate and, in consequence, energy consumption, it follows that stress will, generally, lead to a reduction in complexity (fractal dimension) of exploratory behaviour. In the present study the fractal dimension of the three measures of complexity used declined with stress, both from pregnancy and from parasitic infection. This observation provides a new and effective way to assess the general state...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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We developed a system for evaluation of visual function in larval and adult fish. Both optomotor (swimming) and optokinetic (eye movement) responses were monitored and recorded using a system of rotating stripes. The system allowed manipulation of factors such as width of the stripes used, rotation speed of the striped drum, and light illuminance levels within both the scotopic and photopic ranges. Precise control of these factors allowed quantitative measurements of visual acuity and motion detection. Using this apparatus, we tested the hypothesis that significant posthatch ontogenetic improvements in visual function occur in the medaka Oryzias latipes, and also that this species shows significant in ovo neuronal...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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Animals make trade-offs between predation risk and pursuit of opportunities such as foraging and reproduction. Trade-offs between antipredator behaviours and foraging are well suited to manipulation in laboratory and field settings and have generated a vast compendium of knowledge. However, much less is known about how animals manage trade-offs between predation risk and pursuit of reproductive opportunities in the absence of the confounding effects of foraging. In the present study, we investigated how the nonfeeding migratory life stage of sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, responds to odour from dead conspecifics (a cue that induces avoidance behaviours in laboratory and field studies). We released groups of PIT-tagged...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour


    map background search result map search result map Hemispheric-scale wind selection facilitates bar-tailed godwit circum-migration of the Pacific Behavioural cues surpass habitat factors in explaining prebreeding resource selection by a migratory diving duck Behavioural cues surpass habitat factors in explaining prebreeding resource selection by a migratory diving duck Hemispheric-scale wind selection facilitates bar-tailed godwit circum-migration of the Pacific