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Filters: Tags: Biogeochemistry (X) > partyWithName: Office of the Chief Scientist for Water (X)

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Our research seeks to evaluate and understand the processes that control and respond to changes in the level of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Our interests include the natural cycling of CO 2 and carbon through plants, soils, seawater, rocks, and sediments. We study the causes and effects of past geologic changes in atmospheric CO 2 levels, and the ongoing effects of human actions on CO 2 and climate.
The purpose of my research group is to develop new methods and applications of environmental isotopes to solve problems of national importance. In specific, the overall goal is to use environmental isotopes, combined with other biogeochemical measurements and hydrologic and biogeochemical modeling, to increase our understanding of biogeochemical and hydrological processes, nutrient and organic matter sources, subsurface flowpaths, and water age distributions in diverse environments. Many of our studies piggyback on the sampling efforts of major monitoring programs to investigate causes of hypoxia and food web problems. Our work provides critical scientific support for these monitoring programs. A long-term career...
I conduct research on the transport and fate of organic contaminants in aquatic systems (terrestrial and marine). This entails field investigations and laboratory experiments that are designed to advance our understanding of natural processes and the effects of these processes on the behavior, mobility, and geochemical fate of organic chemicals of concern. I develop and apply new sampling and analytical techniques, identify potential molecular tracers, and develop models to predict contaminant fate. The laboratory I supervise houses analytical instrumentation that is used for detailed characterization of complex mixtures of organic chemicals as well as quantitative determination of targeted substances at ultra-trace...
Recent increases in the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane have emphasized the need for a more complete understanding of the processes that control carbon transfer among air, land, and water. Knowledge of the amount, rate and chemical form of carbon transfer across environmental interfaces, such as the land-air and water-air interfaces, is of particular importance. These fluxes are commonly controlled by a combination of physical, biological, and chemical processes at or near the interface. Isolation of the primary mechanisms that determine carbon transfer across the interface allows for development of process-based models that can be used for carbon mass transfer estimates at the ecosystem...
My research objectives include characterization of dissolved and particulate natural organic acid influence on the reactivity, bioavailability, and mobility of metal ions and inorganic surfaces in aquatic environments. An important research objective of my project is examination of formation and dissolution rates of carbonate minerals. Biocalcification is a significant carbon sink in the world carbon budget and requires further investigation. I study aspects of biocalcification processes that proceed through a highly unstable calcium carbonate polymorph – amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) stabilized by organic acids. I use chemical thermodynamics and kinetics to better describe and predict the fate and distribution...
Micro-organisms alter the chemistry and productivity of aquatic environments by performing complex transformations of organic and inorganic molecules. In many cases, microbes can affect the speciation, mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of toxic elements, such as Se, Hg, and As. The mechanisms by which these reactions proceed, the in situ rates of the transformation, their quantitative significance to element cycling, the responsible microorganisms and their physiology are only poorly understood. In this project, conceptual models of biogeochemical transformations will be developed by the combination of lab and field experimental work. Laboratory work will focus on identification of biochemical pathways, isolation...
Aqueous chemical models have become popular tools for the interpretation of natural water chemistry. Unfortunately, these models have deficiencies because of (1) incorrect or inconsistent thermodynamic data, (2) invalid assumption regarding the equilibrium state, (3) inappropriate or invalidated corrections for nonideality, (4) inadequate expressions for temperature dependence, (5) invalidated limitations for ionic strength, composition and temperature, and (6) lack of data on solid solution solubility. The plethora of models and databases has prompted federal agencies, especially hazardous waste and nuclear waste managers, to request geochemical code validation. Acid mine waters are a major source of water pollution...
I conduct long-term investigations on the fate and geochemical effect of organic contaminants in subsurface environments. I use a combined field and laboratory approach in a variety of hydrogeologic environments in order to meet these objectives. The principal questions being addressed by this project are: 1. How do long-term changes in biogeochemical processes affect the fate of organic and inorganic constituents in aquatic environments? and 2. Does availability of electron acceptors and electron donors control the progress of degradation reactions? My overarching objective is to increase our understanding of the transformation of contaminants from hydrocarbon spills, wastewaters from oil and gas development,...
My research goals are (1) to develop reaction-transport models with varying levels of complexity and data requirements, providing guidelines for the appropriate application of these models given field conditions and limited resources; (2) to incorporate the effects of surface-chemistry phenomena into reaction-transport modeling; (3) to develop methods to identify and quantify important chemical and biological reactions affecting transport of inorganic and organic substances; and (4) to compile estimates of reaction rates and reaction-rate laws for chemical and biological reactions. In addition to model development, the project undertakes field, laboratory, and theoretical studies to investigate field-scale chemical...