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Fine-grained sediments, or “fines,” are nearly ubiquitous in natural sediments, even in the predominantly coarse-grained sediments that host gas hydrates. Fines within these sandy sediments can be mobilized and subsequently clog flow pathways while methane is being extracted from gas hydrate as an energy resource. Using two-dimensional (2D) micromodels to test the conditions in which clogging occurs provides insights for choosing production operation parameters that optimize methane recovery in the field. During methane extraction, several processes can alter the mobility and clogging potential of fines: (1) fluid flow as the formation is depressurized to release methane from gas hydrate, (2) shifting pore-fluid...
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High resolution bathymetric, sea-floor backscatter, and seismic-reflection data were collected offshore of southeastern Louisiana aboard the research vessel Point Sur on May 19-26, 2017, in an effort to characterize mudflow hazards on the Mississippi River Delta front. As the initial field program of a research cooperative between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, and other Federal and academic partners, the primary objective of this cruise was to assess the suitability of sea-floor mapping and shallow subsurface imaging tools in the challenging environmental conditions found across delta fronts (for example, variably distributed water column stratification and widespread biogenic...
The development of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) growth model within the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) model leads to a change in SAV biomass. The SAV biomass is computed from temperature, nutrient loading and light predictions obtained from coupled hydrodynamics (temperature), bio-geochemistry (nutrients) and bio-optical (light) models. In exchange, the growth of SAV sequesters or contributes nutrients from the water column and sediment layers. The presence of SAV modulates current and wave attenuation and consequently affects modelled sediment transport. The model of West Falmouth Harbor in Massachusetts, USA was simulated to study the seagrass growth/dieback pattern in a hypothetical...
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We used the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST; Warner and others, 2010) model to simulate ocean circulation, waves, and sediment transport in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, during Hurricane Sandy. The simulation period was from October 27 to November 4, 2012. Initial conditions for the salinity and temperature fields in the domain were acquired from a 7-month simulation of the same domain (Defne and Ganju, 2018). We used a 2012 digital terrain model (Andrews and others, 2015) to prescribe the prestorm bathymetry. Wetting and drying was enabled, wave-current interaction was modeled with a boundary-layer formulation accounting for the apparent roughness of waves, and the vortex force formulation...
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The numerical simulation of estuarine dynamics requires accurate prediction for the transport of tracers such as temperature and salinity. All numerical models introduce two kinds of tracer mixing: 1) by parameterizing the tracer eddy diffusivity through turbulence models leading to a source of physical mixing and 2) discretization of the tracer advection term that leads to numerical mixing. Both physical and numerical mixing vary with the choice of horizontal advection schemes, grid resolution, and time step. We utilize the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) model to study the mixing in the model by simulating four idealized cases with three different tracer advection schemes.
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This data release contains coastal wetland synthesis products for the geographic region from Jamaica Bay to western Great South Bay, located in southeastern New York State. Metrics for resiliency, including unvegetated to vegetated ratio (UVVR), marsh elevation, and mean tidal range, are calculated for smaller units delineated from a Digital Elevation Model, providing the spatial variability of physical factors that influence wetland health. Through scientific efforts initiated with the Hurricane Sandy Science Plan, the U.S. Geological Survey has been expanding national assessment of coastal change hazards and forecast products to coastal wetlands with the intent of providing Federal, State, and local managers with...
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This data release of dune metrics for the Massachusetts coast is part of a 2018 update to the Massachusetts Shoreline Change Project. Because of continued coastal population growth and the increased threat of coastal erosion, the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) launched the Shoreline Change Project in 1989 to identify erosion-prone areas of the coast. Maps of historic shoreline locations from the mid-1800s to 1978 were produced from multiple data sources, and in 2001, a 1994 shoreline was added to enable the calculation of long- and short-term shoreline change rates. In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with CZM, delineated an additional oceanfront shoreline using 2007...
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Understanding how effectively methane can be extracted from a gas hydrate reservoir requires knowing how compressible, permeable, and strong the overlying seal sediment is. This data release provides results for flow-through permeability, consolidation, and direct shear measurements made on fine-grained seal sediment from Site NGHP-02-08 offshore eastern India. The sediment was collected in a pressure core from the Krishna-Godavari Basin during the 2015 Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 2 (NGHP-02). Gas hydrate is a crystalline solid that forms naturally in the sediment of certain marine and permafrost environments where pressure is relatively high (equivalent to the pressure measured ~300 meters water...
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Unvegetated to vegetated marsh ratio (UVVR) in the Fire Island National Seashore and Central Great South Bay salt marsh complex, is computed based on conceptual marsh units defined by Defne and Ganju (2018). UVVR was calculated based on U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) 1-meter resolution imagery. Through scientific efforts initiated with the Hurricane Sandy Science Plan, the U.S. Geological Survey has been expanding national assessment of coastal change hazards and forecast products to coastal wetlands, including the Fire Island National Seashore and Central Great South Bay salt marshes, with the intent of providing Federal, State, and local managers with tools to estimate...
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The Sandy Hook artificial reef, located on the sea floor offshore of Sandy Hook, New Jersey was built to create habitat for marine life. The reef was created by the placement of heavy materials on the sea floor; ninety-five percent of the material in the Sandy Hook reef is rock. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey surveyed the area using a Simrad EM1000 multibeam echosounder mounted on the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) ship Frederick G. Creed. The purpose of this multibeam survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers when the Creed was in the New York region in April 2000, was to map the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor in the area of the Sandy Hook artificial reef. The collected...
Transport of material in an estuary is important for water quality and hazards concern. We studied these processes in the Hudson River Estuary, located along the northeast coast of the U.S. using the COAWST numerical modeling system. A skill assessment of the COAWST model for the 3-D salinity structure of the estuary has been successfully studied in the past, and the present research extended that understanding to look at both physical and numerical mixing. The model grid extends from the south at the Battery, NY to the north in Troy, NY. The simulation is performed from March 25 to July 11, 2005 (111 days). For more information see: https://doi.org/10.5066/P95E8LAS.
Categories: Data; Types: Map Service, NetCDF OPeNDAP Service, OGC WMS Layer; Tags: CMG_Portal, Earth Science > Human Dimensions > Natural Hazards > Floods, Earth Science > Oceans > Marine Sediments >Sediment Transport, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Circulation > Ocean Currents, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Potential Temperature, All tags...
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This data release contains coastal wetland synthesis products for the geographic region of eastern Long Island, New York, including the north and south forks, Gardiners Island, and Fishers Island. Metrics for resiliency, including unvegetated to vegetated ratio (UVVR), marsh elevation, and mean tidal range, are calculated for smaller units delineated from a Digital Elevation Model, providing the spatial variability of physical factors that influence wetland health. Through scientific efforts initiated with the Hurricane Sandy Science Plan, the U.S. Geological Survey has been expanding national assessment of coastal change hazards and forecast products to coastal wetlands with the intent of providing Federal, State,...
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These data are a qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefile defining surficial sediment type and distribution, and geomorphology, for nearly 1,400 square kilometers of sea floor on the inner-continental shelf from Fenwick Island, Maryland to Fisherman’s Island, Virginia, USA. These data are classified according to Barnhardt and others (1998) bottom-type classification system, which was modified to highlight changes in secondary sediment-types such as mud and gravel across this primarily sandy shelf. Most of the geophysical and sample data used to create this interpretive layer were collected as part of the Linking Coastal Processes and Vulnerability: Assateague Island Regional Study project (GS2-2C), supported...
Categories: Data; Types: Downloadable, Map Service, OGC WFS Layer, OGC WMS Layer, Shapefile; Tags: Assateague Island, Assateague Island National Seashore, Assawoman Island, Atlantic Ocean, Backscatter, All tags...
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One goal of Korea’s second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Expedition, UBGH2, is to examine geotechnical properties of the marine sediment associated with methane gas hydrate occurrences found offshore eastern Korea in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea. Methane gas hydrate is a naturally occurring crystalline solid that sequesters methane in individual molecular cages formed by a lattice of water molecules. Offshore Korea, gas hydrate is found in thin, coarse-grained sediment layers that are interbedded with fine-grained sediment. Methane gas hydrate is a potential energy resource, but whether extracting methane from gas hydrate in these layered marine environments is technically and economically viable remains an open research...
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The T-3 (Fletcher's) Ice Island in the Arctic Ocean was the site of a scientific research station re-established by the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory starting in 1962. Starting in 1963, the USGS acquired marine heat flow data and coincident sediment cores at sites in Canada Basin, Nautilus Basin, Mendeleev Ridge, and Alpha Ridge as the ice island drifted in the Amerasian Basin. At least 584 heat flow penetrations were attempted, and data were reported at 356 of these. This dataset is the enhanced version of the original data table from Lachenbruch and others (2019; see cross-reference), incorporating additional information such as the probable dates of measurement, physiographic province and surficial geology...
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Extended time-series sensor data were collected between 2012 and 2016 in surface water of a tidal salt-marsh creek on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The objective of this field study was to measure water chemical characteristics and flows, as part of a study to quantify lateral fluxes of dissolved carbon species between the salt marsh and estuary. Data consist of in-situ measurements including: salinity, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, redox potential, fluorescent dissolved organic matter, turbidity and chlorophyll. Surface water flow, water level and water elevation data were also measured. The data provided in this release represent a compiled data set consisting of multiple sensor deployments between 2012 and 2016.
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Suspended-sediment transport is a critical element governing the geomorphology of tidal marshes and estuaries. Marsh elevation, relative to sea level, is maintained by both organic material and the deposition of inorganic sediment. Additionally, horizontal marsh extent is altered by lateral erosion and accretion. In wetlands within and near Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, parts of the salt marsh are eroding relatively rapidly. To understand the connection between sediment fluxes and these processes, the U.S. Geological Survey made oceanographic and water-quality measurements from August 2, 2016, to January 28, 2017, to quantify suspended-sediment concentration and sediment transport in tidal channels...
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Monitoring shoreline change is of interest in many coastal areas because it enables quantification of land loss over time. Evolution of shoreline position is determined by the balance between erosion and accretion along the coast. In the case of salt marshes, erosion along the water boundary causes a loss of ecosystem services, such as habitat provision, carbon storage, and wave attenuation. In terms of vulnerability, higher shoreline erosion rates indicate higher vulnerability. This dataset displays shoreline change rates at the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (EBFNWR), which spans over Great Bay, Little Egg Harbor, and Barnegat Bay in New Jersey, USA. Shoreline change rates are based on...
An idealized domain is setup to test the development of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) growth model within the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) model. The change in SAV biomass is computed from temperature, nutrient loading and light predictions obtained from coupled hydrodynamics (temperature), bio-geochemistry (nutrients) and bio-optical (light) models. In exchange, the growth of SAV sequesters or contributes nutrients from the water column and sediment layers. The presence of SAV modulates current and wave attenuation and consequently affects modelled sediment transport. The idealized domain simulation shows that the newly developed framework can simulate a two-way coupled SAV-biogeochemistry-hydrodynamic...
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The T-3 (Fletcher's) Ice Island in the Arctic Ocean was the site of a scientific research station re-established by the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory starting in 1962. Lamont Geological Observatory (LGO; now Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory) and the U.S. Geological Survey, along with other organizations, ran research laboratories on the island during the 1960s and early 1970s as the island drifted in the Amerasian Basin. LGO compiled navigational data, measured gravity and magnetic data, and conducted seismic surveys to image the seafloor. This data release provides the edited LGO-compiled 1 hour navigational data for T-3 from May 1962 until September 1974, along with gravity and magnetic data and calculated...


map background search result map search result map Sediment Texture and Geomorphology of the Sea Floor from Fenwick Island, Maryland to Fisherman's Island, Virginia Shoreline change rates in salt marsh units in Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Mississippi River Delta front offshore of southeastern Louisiana, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2017-003-FA 2D micromodel studies of pore-throat clogging by pure fine-grained sediments and natural sediments from NGHP-02, offshore India Unvegetated to vegetated marsh ratio in Fire Island National Seashore and Central Great South Bay salt marsh complex, New York Dune Metrics for the Massachusetts Coast as Derived From 2013–14 Topographic Lidar Data U.S. Geological Survey hydrodynamic model simulations for Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, during Hurricane Sandy, 2012 Numerical model of salinity transport and mixing in the Hudson River Estuary Time-series of biogeochemical and flow data from a tidal salt-marsh creek, Sage Lot Pond, Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts (2012-2016) Coastal wetlands from Jamaica Bay to western Great South Bay, New York Numerical model of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) growth dynamics in West Falmouth Harbor Dependence of sedimentation behavior on pore-fluid chemistry for sediment collected offshore South Korea during the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Expedition, UBGH2 Suspended-sediment concentration data from water samples collected in 2016-17 in Grand Bay, Alabama and Mississippi Coastal wetlands of eastern Long Island, New York Time-series of biogeochemical and flow data from a tidal salt-marsh creek, Sage Lot Pond, Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts (2012-2016) Suspended-sediment concentration data from water samples collected in 2016-17 in Grand Bay, Alabama and Mississippi Coastal wetlands of eastern Long Island, New York High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Mississippi River Delta front offshore of southeastern Louisiana, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2017-003-FA 2D micromodel studies of pore-throat clogging by pure fine-grained sediments and natural sediments from NGHP-02, offshore India Sediment Texture and Geomorphology of the Sea Floor from Fenwick Island, Maryland to Fisherman's Island, Virginia Numerical model of salinity transport and mixing in the Hudson River Estuary Dune Metrics for the Massachusetts Coast as Derived From 2013–14 Topographic Lidar Data