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We really appreciate the interest and comments regarding our manuscript. We hope we address all the lingering issues in this reply. This also gives us the opportunity of publishing an update on our dataset that will complete the original manuscript (see Table 1). We have followed the author pattern in our answers: 1-Gas sampling procedure, 2-Reported gas concentrations results, 3-General remarks, 4-Conclusions.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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A large amphitheater-shaped scarp, approximately 55 km across, was imaged on the northern insular slope of Puerto Rico using long-range sidescan sonar and bathymetric data. This scarp results from the removal of more than 1500 km3 of Tertiary strata. A review of seismic-reflection profiles, stratigraphic data, and subsidence models of the northern insular margin of Puerto Rico were used to infer that large-scale slope failure was induced by the tectonic oversteepening of the insular slope and was responsible for the formation of the scarp. The oversteepening probably was caused by the most recent episode of convergence of the Caribbean and North American plates, which began between approximately 4 and 2.5 m.y. ago....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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Variations in the concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSM) collected 1 m above bottom, changes in vertical profiles of light transmission, and substrate textural patterns reveal a corridor for preferential sediment transport on San Pedro continental shelf, California. During the winter, this corridor, designated the preferential transport corridor (PTC), is defined by higher concentrations of TSM relative to the rest of the shelf and extends for 10-15 km from the inner shelf to the head of San Gabriel Submarine Canyon. Vertical profiles of light transmission within the PTC suggest density stratification throughout the water column and apparent mixing in the upper 15-20 m of water column on either...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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CHIRP seismic and swath bathymetry data acquired offshore La Jolla, California provide an unprecedented three-dimensional view of the La Jolla and Scripps submarine canyons. Shore-parallel patterns of tectonic deformation appear to control nearshore sediment thickness and distribution around the canyons. These shore-parallel patterns allow the impact of local tectonic deformation to be separated from the influence of eustatic sea-level fluctuations. Based on stratal geometry and acoustic character, we identify a prominent angular unconformity inferred to be the transgressive surface and three sedimentary sequences: an acoustically laminated estuarine unit deposited during early transgression, an infilling or “healing-phase”...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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A diverse suite of geochemical tracers, including 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios, the rare earth elements (REEs), and select trace elements were used to determine sand-sized sediment provenance and transport pathways within the San Francisco Bay coastal system. This study complements a large interdisciplinary effort (Barnard et al., 2012) that seeks to better understand recent geomorphic change in a highly urbanized and dynamic estuarine-coastal setting. Sand-sized sediment provenance in this geologically complex system is important to estuarine resource managers and was assessed by examining the geographic distribution of this suite of geochemical tracers from the primary sources (fluvial and rock) throughout...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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The impact of multi-decadal, large-scale deflation (76 million m3 of sediment loss) and contraction (~ 1 km) of a 150 km2 ebb-tidal delta on hydrodynamics and sediment transport at adjacent Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA), is examined using a coupled wave and circulation model. The model is forced with representative wave and tidal conditions using recent (2005) and historic (1956) ebb-tidal delta bathymetry data sets. Comparison of the simulations indicates that along north/south trending Ocean Beach the contraction and deflation of the ebb-tidal delta have resulted in significant differences in the flow and sediment dynamics. Between 1956 and 2005 the transverse bar (the shallow attachment point of the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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Sediment exchange at large energetic inlets is often difficult to quantify due complex flows, massive amounts of water and sediment exchange, and environmental conditions limiting long-term data collection. In an effort to better quantify such exchange this study investigated the use of suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) measured at an offsite location as a surrogate for sediment exchange at the tidally dominated Golden Gate inlet in San Francisco, CA. A numerical model was calibrated and validated against water and suspended sediment flux measured during a spring–neap tide cycle across the Golden Gate. The model was then run for five months and net exchange was calculated on a tidal time-scale and compared...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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Necker Ridge, Horizon Guyot and S.P. Lee Guyot in the Central Pacific were sampled, seismically surveyed, and photographed by bottom cameras in order to better understand the distribution, origin, and evolution of ferromanganese crusts. Necker Ridge is over 600 km long with a rugged crest, pods of sediment to 146 m thick, slopes that average 12° to 20°, and debris aprons that cover some of the lower flanks. Substrate lithologies are mostly hyaloclastite, volcaniclastic breccia, and minor alkalic basalt. Horizon Guyot, 300 km long and 75 km wide, is capped by at least 160 m of sediment, which buries stepped terraces. Substrate lithologies are similar to those on Necker Ridge, although previous workers sampled much...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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The increasing volume of multibeam bathymetry data collected along continental margins is providing new opportunities to study the feedbacks between sedimentary and oceanographic processes and seafloor morphology. Attempts to develop simple guidelines that describe the relationships between form and process often overlook the importance of inherited physiography in slope depositional systems. Here, we use multibeam bathymetry data and seismic reflection profiles spanning the U.S. Atlantic outer continental shelf, slope and rise from Cape Hatteras to New England to quantify the broad-scale, across-margin morphological variation. Morphometric analyses suggest the margin can be divided into four basic categories that...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A)...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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Vertical sediment fluxes and their dominant controlling processes in Hueneme and Mugu submarine canyons off south-central California were assessed using data from sediment traps and current meters on two moorings that were deployed for 6 months during the winter of 2007. The maxima of total particulate flux, which reached as high as 300+ g/m2/day in Hueneme Canyon, were recorded during winter storm events when high waves and river floods often coincided. During these winter storms, wave-induced resuspension of shelf sediment was a major source for the elevated sediment fluxes. Canyon rim morphology, rather than physical proximity to an adjacent river mouth, appeared to control the magnitude of sediment fluxes in...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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Quantification of cliff retreat rates for the southern half of Santa Cruz County, CA, USA, located within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, using the softcopy/geographic information system (GIS) methodology results in average cliff retreat rates of 7–15 cm/yr between 1953 and 1994. The coastal dunes at the southern end of Santa Cruz County migrate seaward and landward through time and display net accretion between 1953 and 1994, which is partially due to development. In addition, three critically eroding segments of coastline with high average erosion rates ranging from 20 to 63 cm/yr are identified as erosion ‘hotspots’. These locations include: Opal Cliffs, Depot Hill and Manresa. Although cliff retreat...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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Dune erosion is shown to occur at the embayment of beach mega-cusps O(200 m alongshore) that are associated with rip currents. The beach is the narrowest at the embayment of the mega-cusps allowing the swash of large storm waves coincident with high tides to reach the toe of the dune, to undercut the dune and to cause dune erosion. Field measurements of dune, beach, and rip current morphology are acquired along an 18 km shoreline in southern Monterey Bay, California. This section of the bay consists of a sandy shoreline backed by extensive dunes, rising to heights exceeding 40 m. There is a large increase in wave height going from small wave heights in the shadow of a headland, to the center of the bay where convergence...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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Observed morphodynamic changes over multiple decades were coupled with storm-driven run-up characteristics at Fire Island, New York, to explore the influence of wave processes relative to the impacts of other coastal change drivers on the near-term evolution of the barrier island. Historical topography was generated from digital stereo-photogrammetry and compared with more recent lidar surveys to quantify near-term (decadal) morphodynamic changes to the beach and primary dune system between the years 1969, 1999, and 2009. Notably increased profile volumes were observed along the entirety of the island in 1999, and likely provide the eolian source for the steady dune crest progradation observed over the relatively...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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Over 150 million m3 of sand-sized sediment has disappeared from the central region of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System during the last half century. This enormous loss may reflect numerous anthropogenic influences, such as watershed damming, bay-fill development, aggregate mining, and dredging. The reduction in Bay sediment also appears to be linked to a reduction in sediment supply and recent widespread erosion of adjacent beaches, wetlands, and submarine environments. A unique, multi-faceted provenance study was performed to definitively establish the primary sources, sinks, and transport pathways of beach-sized sand in the region, thereby identifying the activities and processes that directly limit supply...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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The mineralogical compositions of 119 samples collected from throughout the San Francisco Bay coastal system, including bayfloor and seafloor, area beaches, cliff outcrops, and major drainages, were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Comparison of the mineral concentrations and application of statistical cluster analysis of XRD spectra allowed for the determination of provenances and transport pathways. The use of XRD mineral identifications provides semi-quantitative compositions needed for comparisons of beach and offshore sands with potential cliff and river sources, but the innovative cluster analysis of XRD diffraction spectra provides a unique visualization of how groups of samples within the San Francisco...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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Combined EM-300 multibeam bathymetric data and satellite photography reveal the physiography of the continental margin between 35°50′ and 37°03′N and from the shoreline west of 122°40′ and 122°37′W, which includes Monterey Bay, in a previously unprecedented detail. Patterns in these images clearly reveal the processes that are actively influencing the current geomorphology of the Monterey Bay region, including the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). Our data indicates that seafloor physiography within the MBNMS results from plate margin tectonic deformation, including uplift and erosion along structural lineaments, and from fluid flow. Mass wasting is the dominant process active within the Ascension–Monterey...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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The Monterey submarine canyon, incised across the continental shelf in Monterey Bay, California, provides a record of the link between onshore tectonism, fluvial transport, and deep-marine deposition. High-resolution seismic-reflection imaging in Monterey Bay reveals an extensive paleocanyon unit buried below the seafloor of the continental shelf around Monterey and Soquel canyon heads. Paleocanyons shifted position through numerous phases of cut-and-fill in response to Salinas, Pajaro, and San Lorenzo river extensions and avulsions across the continental shelf during high-frequency Pleistocene sea-level and climatic variations. Five seismic facies within the Monterey paleocanyon unit and below the modern canyon...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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Seismic reflection profiles and magnetic intensity measurements were collected across the southern continental margin of Spain and the Alboran basin between Spain and Africa. Correlation of the distinct seismic stratigraphy observed in the profiles to stratigraphic information obtained from cores at Deep Sea Drilling Project site 121 allows effective dating of tectonic events. The Alboran Sea basin occupies a zone of motion between the African and Iberian lithospheric plates that probably began to form by extension in late Miocene time (Tortonian). At the end of Miocene time (end of Messinian) profiles show that an angular unconformity was cut, and then the strata were block faulted before subsequent deposition....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology


map background search result map search result map Geomorphic characterization of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin Improving understanding of near-term barrier island evolution through multi-decadal assessment of morphologic change A Sr-Nd isotopic study of sand-sized sediment provenance and transport for the San Francisco Bay coastal system Changes in surfzone morphodynamics driven by multi-decadel contraction of a large ebb-tidal delta Integration of bed characteristics, geochemical tracers, current measurements, and numerical modeling for assessing the provenance of beach sand in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System Sand sources and transport pathways for the San Francisco Bay coastal system, based on X-ray diffraction mineralogy The use of modeling and suspended sediment concentration measurements for quantifying net suspended sediment transport through a large tidally dominated inlet The use of modeling and suspended sediment concentration measurements for quantifying net suspended sediment transport through a large tidally dominated inlet Improving understanding of near-term barrier island evolution through multi-decadal assessment of morphologic change Changes in surfzone morphodynamics driven by multi-decadel contraction of a large ebb-tidal delta A Sr-Nd isotopic study of sand-sized sediment provenance and transport for the San Francisco Bay coastal system Integration of bed characteristics, geochemical tracers, current measurements, and numerical modeling for assessing the provenance of beach sand in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System Sand sources and transport pathways for the San Francisco Bay coastal system, based on X-ray diffraction mineralogy Geomorphic characterization of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin