Skip to main content
Advanced Search

Filters: Tags: Marine Geology (X)

572 results (201ms)   

Filters
Date Range
Extensions
Types
Contacts
Categories
Tag Types
Tag Schemes
View Results as: JSON ATOM CSV
thumbnail
Recent geophysical surveys off northern California reveal patterns of gullies on the sea floor and preserved within continental-slope deposits that represent both erosional and aggradational processes. These surveys, conducted as part of the STRATAFORM project, combined multibeam bathymetry and backscatter with high-resolution seismic profiles. These data provide a new basis for evaluating gully morphology, distribution, and their significance to slope sedimentation and evolution. The continental margin off northern California exhibits an upper slope that has undergone both progradation and aggradation. The slope surface, which dips at <2??to 4.0??, contains a set of straight, evenly spaced, and parallel to sub-parallel...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
The surficial sediments have been mapped and the shallow geologic framework outlined of the Maryland inner continental shelf. The initial study encompassed a small area offshore of Assateague Island but was extended northward to include the Ocean City area and eastward across several linear shoals. The surficial sediments are predominantly sand with mean grain sizes ranging from 0.40 to 2.89???. Mud and gravel are the mappable components of the surficial sediments. Muds are distributed along a N-S-trending band seaward of the shoreface. Gravels are mapped farther offshore in 18-22 m of water. Four distinct seismic units are identified from seismic reflection profiles. The lowermost unit, T1, exhibits high-angle...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
In exposures of Pleistocene rocks on the east coast of South Africa, eight sedimentary facies were distinguished on the basis of petrology, grain size, internal structures and field relationships. These are interpreted as deposits of surf zone, breaker zone, swash zone, backbeach, boulder beach and dune environments. Three phases of deposition and diagenesis are recognized. As a result of the stabilising effect of pre-existing coastal facies, the deposits from successive sea level stands are stacked vertically in a narrow coast-normal strip. Early cementation prevented erosion of the deposits during subsequent transgressions. Deposition of subsequent facies took place on an existing coastal dune (Facies 1). A terrace...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
The orientations and termination directions of newly formed ice gouges, identified in a 5-year study of two offshore corridors in eastern Harrison Bay, Alasaka, indicate a bimodal distribution of sediment transport directions: west-southwest and southeast, due to ice-keel bulldozing. The westerly sediment transport results from the dominant westward drift of sea ice and ocean currents, whereas the southeasterly transport results from episodic fall storms with winds from the northwest. Transport associated with ice gouging occurs by bulldozing and by resuspension during the bulldozing processes. Fine-grained (< 63 ??m) sediment transport may also involve transport of resuspended sediment by intensified currents found...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
A new instrumented tripod, the GEOPROBE system, has been constructed and used to collect time-series data on physical and geological parameters that are important in bottom sediment dynamics on continental shelves. Simultaneous in situ digital recording of pressure, temperature, light scattering, and light transmission, in combination with current velocity profiles measured with a near-bottom vertical array of electromagnetic current meters, is used to correlate bottom shear generated by a variety of oceanic processes (waves, tides, mean flow, etc.) with incipient movement and resuspension of bottom sediment. A bottom camera system that is activated when current speeds exceed preset threshold values provides a unique...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
A radiographic scanning technique (RST) can produce single continuous radiographs of cores or core sections up to 1.5 m long and up to 30 cm wide. Changing a portable industrial X-ray unit from the normal still-shot mode to a scanning mode requires simple, inexpensive, easily constructed, and highly durable equipment. Additional components include a conveyor system, antiscatter cylinder-diaphragm, adjustable sample platform, developing tanks, and a contact printer. Complete cores, half cores, sample slabs or peels may be scanned. Converting the X-ray unit from one mode to another is easy and can be accomplished without the use of special tools. RST provides the investigator with a convenient, continuous, high quality...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
Estimating the likelihood of tsunamis occurring along the U.S. Atlantic coast critically depends on knowledge of tsunami source probability. We review available information on both earthquake and landslide probabilities from potential sources that could generate local and transoceanic tsunamis. Estimating source probability includes defining both size and recurrence distributions for earthquakes and landslides. For the former distribution, source sizes are often distributed according to a truncated or tapered power-law relationship. For the latter distribution, sources are often assumed to occur in time according to a Poisson process, simplifying the way tsunami probabilities from individual sources can be aggregated....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
Tropical and extratropical storms produce significant erosion on the barrier islands of Louisiana. Over the past 100 years, such storms have produced at least 2 km of northward beach-face retreat and the loss of 63% of the surface area of the Isles Dernieres, a low-lying barrier-island arc along the central Louisiana coast. Elevations on the islands within the arc are typically less than 2 m above mean sea level. The islands typically have a washover-flat topography with occasional, poorly developed, dune-terrace topography consisting of low-lying and broken dunes. The central part of the arc consists of salt-marsh deposits overlain by washover sands along the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. Sand thicknesses range from...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
We present detailed bathymetry, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and submersible observations, and sedimentary and radiocarbon age data from carbonate deposits recovered from two submerged terraces at − 150 m (T1) and − 230 m (T2) off Lanai, Hawaii. The tops of the terraces are veneered by relatively thin (<5 m) in situ accumulations of coralline algal nodule, coralgal nodule, Halimeda and a derived oolitic facies deposited in intermediate (30–60 m) to deep fore-reef slope settings (60–120 m). The data are used to develop a sedimentary facies model that is consistent with eustatic sea-level variations over the last 30 ka. Both nodule facies on T1 and T2 initiated growth 30–29 ka following a fall in sea level of ∼50...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
Seaward-dipping strata of carbonate-cemented shell debris located along the coast of Siesta Key on the Gulf Coast of the Florida peninsula have long been interpreted to be beachrock equivalent in age to the Pleistocene Anastasia Formation (Stage 5e) of the east coast of Florida. Detailed examination of thin sections along with radiometric dating and isotopic analyses demonstrates clearly that this is a Holocene deposit that is not beachrock but was lithified in a meteoric environment. Whole rock dates, dates from shells only, and from cement only demonstrate that these beach deposits were in place by at least 1800 yr BP and might have been there as long ago as 4300 yr BP. This means that some type of barrier island...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
High-resolution seismic-reflection data have been used to a varying degree by geoscientists to interpret the history of marine sediment accumulations around Antarctica. Reconnaissance analysis of 1-, 3.5-, and 12-kHz data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the western Ross Sea has led to the identification of eight echo-character facies and six microtopographic facies in the sediment deposits that overlie the Ross Sea unconformity. Three depositional facies regions, each characterized by a particular assemblage of echo-character type and microtopographic facies, have been identified on the continental shelf. These suites of acoustic facies are the result of specific depositional processes that control type...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
The coast of Maine contains over 200 individual barrier-lagoon systems, most quite small, with an aggregate length of nearly 100 km. Although they represent less than 5% of the tidally influenced coastline of Maine, they are widely distributed and occur in a variety of dynamic regimes and physiographic regions. Their morphology and backbarrier stratigraphy are different from better studied coastal plain systems, and provide important clues to the Holocene evolution of the Maine coast. In a study of geomorphic form and backbarrier stratigraphy, inlet processes and Holocene sea-level rise have been identified as the principal controls on coarse-grained barrier stratigraphy. Barriers in Maine are found in five distinct...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
Interpretation of reflection profiles across the Washington continental margin suggests deformation of Cascadia basin strata against the continental slope. Individual reflecting horizons can be traced across the slope-basin boundary. The sense of offset along faults on the continental slope is predominantly, but not entirely, west side up. Two faults of small displacement are seen to be west-dipping reverse faults. Magnetic anomalies on the Juan de Fuca plate can be traced 40-100 km eastward under the slope, and structural interpretation combined with calculated rates of subduction suggests that approximately 50 km of the outer continental slope may have been formed in Pleistocene time. Rocks of Pleistocene age...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
A review of recent data on the velocity of bottom currents, the frequency of bottom-sediment movement, the kinds and amounts of suspended sediments in near-bottom waters, and the acoustic and sedimentary features of subbottom strata indicates that the characteristics of the ubiquitous sand sheet on the Atlantic outer continental shelf of the United States have been controlled by a variety of past and present processes. Although these processes collectively have had a widespread effect on the characteristics of the sand sheet, the relative importance of each process changes geographically. On Georges Bank, late Pleistocene glaciations along with modern tidal currents and the regional circulation pattern have played...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
Dune erosion is shown to occur at the embayment of beach mega-cusps O(200 m alongshore) that are associated with rip currents. The beach is the narrowest at the embayment of the mega-cusps allowing the swash of large storm waves coincident with high tides to reach the toe of the dune, to undercut the dune and to cause dune erosion. Field measurements of dune, beach, and rip current morphology are acquired along an 18 km shoreline in southern Monterey Bay, California. This section of the bay consists of a sandy shoreline backed by extensive dunes, rising to heights exceeding 40 m. There is a large increase in wave height going from small wave heights in the shadow of a headland, to the center of the bay where convergence...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
Acoustic swath-mapping of the greater Monterey Bay area continental shelf from Point An??o Nuevo to Point Sur reveals complex patterns of rock outcrops on the shelf, and coarse-sand bodies that occur in distinct depressions on the inner and mid-shelves. Most of the rock outcrops are erosional cuestas of dipping Tertiary rocks that make up the bedrock of the surrounding lands. A mid-shelf mud belt of Holocene sediment buries the Tertiary rocks in a continuous, 6-km-wide zone on the northern Monterey Bay shelf. Rock exposures occur on the inner shelf, near tectonically uplifting highlands, and on the outer shelf, beyond the reach of the mud depositing on the mid-shelf since the Holocene sea-level rise. The sediment-starved...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
The Santa Rosa-Cortes Ridge is an 1800 m high, 180 km long feature lying approximately 90 km off the coast of southern California and directly south of the northern group of Channel Islands. Geophysical profiling and sampling cruises to the northern part of the ridge, an area of recent and future lease sales for petroleum development, provide a strong data base for interpretation of structural and sedimentary patterns and their relation to potential geologic hazards. The northern part of the ridge is a complexly folded and faulted northwest-trending anticlinorium composed mostly of lower and middle Miocene shale and mudstone. Erosional remnants of upper Miocene and Pliocene rocks unconformably overlie highly folded...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
Time-exposure intensity (averaged) images are commonly used to locate the nearshore sandbar position (xb), based on the cross-shore locations of maximum pixel intensity (xi) of the bright bands in the images. It is not known, however, how the breaking patterns seen in Variance images (i.e. those created through standard deviation of pixel intensity over time) are related to the sandbar locations. We investigated the suitability of both Time-exposure and Variance images for sandbar detection within a multiple bar system on the southern coast of Brazil, and verified the relation between wave breaking patterns, observed as bands of high intensity in these images and cross-shore profiles of modeled wave energy dissipation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
Assessment of the probability for destructive landslide-generated tsunamis depends on the knowledge of the number, size, and frequency of large submarine landslides. This paper investigates the size distribution of submarine landslides along the U.S. Atlantic continental slope and rise using the size of the landslide source regions (landslide failure scars). Landslide scars along the margin identified in a detailed bathymetric Digital Elevation Model (DEM) have areas that range between 0.89??km2 and 2410??km2 and volumes between 0.002??km3 and 179??km3. The area to volume relationship of these failure scars is almost linear (inverse power-law exponent close to 1), suggesting a fairly uniform failure thickness of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
thumbnail
Mass movement has influenced in varying degrees the morphology of the United States east coast continental margin seaward of the Baltimore Canyon trough as revealed by detailed geophysical studies using high-resolution 3.5-kHz, and seismic reflection data. Each of three areas studied is along the slope within a distance of 225 km, and is seaward of a nonglaciated shelf but near major land drainage systems. Thick sequences of material believed to be Pleistocene were deposited on the slope in all three areas. Sediment failure in the form of large block movement involving block thicknesses of more than 100 m, however, has taken place in only two of the areas. A factor common to the two areas where failure took place,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology