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Water-quality reconnaissance by the U.S. Geological Survey and Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, to evaluate the status of Ohio's lakes and reservoirs was begun in 1975 with studies of 17 lakes. Spring and summer data collections for each lake included: profile measurements of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance; field and laboratory analyses of physical, biological, chemical organic characteristics; (nutrient), and concentrations of major and minor chemical constituents from composites of the water column; and physical and chemical data from major inflows.Light penetration (secchi disk) ranged from 9.4 feet (2.9 meters) in Lake Hope to 0.4 feet (0.1 meter) in Acton Lake. Seasonal thermal...
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An investigation of water quality in the industrialized French Broad River basin of western North Carolina has identified water-quality variations, the extent of man's influence on water quality, and trends in changes in the chemical quality of the river. The study centered on data collected during 1958-77 at the U.S. Geological Survey's station at Marshall, N.C. The French Broad is a clean river. Only occasionally have concentrations of some trace metals been observed to exceed drinking water standards. However, 58 percent of samples analyzed for fecal coliform bacteria during 1974-77 exceeded criteria levels for bathing waters. Most water-quality variations are associated with variations in streamflow. Concentrations...
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Water-quality investigations in six interconnected lakes that comprise most of the surface area of Voyageurs National Park in northern Minnesota revealed substantial differences in water-quality. Three large lakes; Sand Point, Namakan, and Rainy, near the eastern and northern boundaries of the Park; are oligotrophic to mesotrophic, having low dissolved solids and alkalinity, and dimictic circulation. In contrast, Kabetogama Lake, Black Bay, and Sullivan Bay, near the western and southern boundaries of the Park, were eutrophic, having higher dissolved solids and alkalinity, and polymictic circulation. Chemical characteristics of the three lakes along the eastern and northern boundary were similar to those of the...
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Contraction scour in the main stream channel at a bridge and local scour near piers and abutments can result in bridge failure. Estimates of contraction-scour and local-scour potentials associated with the 100-year flood were computed for 13 bridge sites in Michigan by use of semi-theoretical equations and procedures recommended by the Federal Highway Administration. These potentials were compared with measures of Streambed stability obtained by use of data from 773 historical streamflow measurements, documenting 20,741 individual Streambed soundings between 1959 and 1995. Analysis of these data indicate small, but statistically significant, monotonic trends in Streambed elevation at 10 sites. No consistent patterns...
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This map report is one of a series of geologic and hydrologic maps covering all or parts of the States within the Basin and Range province of the western United States, resulting from work under the U.S. Geological Survey's program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of the Basin and Range province to identify potentially suitable regions for future study relative to isolation of high-level nuclear waste (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1984) . The map report on the ash-flow tuffs of Trans-Pecos Texas was prepared from published maps and reports and from recent work in progress by geologists of the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, and was compiled utilizing the project guidelines of Sargent and Bedinger (1984)....
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Model assumptions and parameters used in an earlier study of the vulnerability of ground water in Kent County, Michigan, to atrazine contamination were reviewed and compared with other studies. The review indicated that model assumptions are consistent with those used in other models and that the parameters assigned in the Kent County model are within the broad range commonly found in the literature. Model assumptions most likely to limit the accuracy of the previous study include those of uniform transport and steady-state flow. Simulation results are more sensitive to parameter estimates for atrazine half life, organic-carbon content, and organic-carbon partition coefficient than to other model parameters. Potential...
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The Hood Basin, an area of 1,035 square miles in north-central Oregon, includes the drainage basins of all tributaries of the Columbia River between Eagle Creek and Fifteenmile Creek. The physical characteristics and climate of the basin are diverse. The Wasco subarea, in the eastern half of the basin, has moderate relief, mostly intermittent streams, and semiarid climate. The Hood subarea, in the western half, has rugged topography, numerous perennial streams, and a humid climate.Water-bearing geologic units that underlie the basin include volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks of Miocene to Holocene age, and unconsolidated surficial deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The most important water-bearing...
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The Grand Portage Indian Reservation Tribal Council needs information about the availability and quality of the ground water in the Reservation to develop, protect, and manage this resource for future use. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand Portage Indian Reservation Tribal Council, did a three-year study of the ground water in the Reservation to provide this needed information. This report presents the results of that study. Presently, ground water from bedrock is the principal source of supply for municipal, commercial, and residential water use. The bedrock aquifers are the (1) North Shore Volcanic Group basalt, (2) Keweenawan Volcanic and intrusive rocks, which are gabbro and diabase,...
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This report documents results of a cost-effectiveness study of the stream-gaging program In North Dakota. It is part of a nationwide evaluation of the stream-gaging program of the U.S. Geological Survey.One phase of evaluating cost effectiveness is to identify less costly alternative methods of simulating streamflow records. Statistical or hydro logic flow-routing methods were used as alternative methods to simulate streamflow records for 21 combinations of gaging stations from the 94-gaging-station network. Accuracy of the alternative methods was sufficient to consider discontinuing only one gaging station.Operation of the gaging-station network was evaluated by using associated uncertainty in streamflow records....
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Four laboratories involved in the routine analysis of wet-deposition samples participated in an interlaboratory comparison program managed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The four participants were: Illinois State Water Survey central analytical laboratory in Champaign, Illinois; U.S. Geological Survey national water-quality laboratories in Atlanta, Georgia, and Denver, Colorado; and Inland Waters Directorate national water-quality laboratory in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. Analyses of interlaboratory samples performed by the four laboratories from October 1983 through December 1984 were compared.Participating laboratories analyzed three types of interlaboratory samples--natural wet deposition, simulated wet deposition,...
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Samples of water, bed material, fish, and soil were collected in four small drainage basins in Pennsylvania in 1969-71 and analyzed to determine the concentrations of chlorinated-hydrocarbon insecticides. Water samples only were also analyzed for phenoxy-acid herbicides. Each basin studied represents a predominant land-use classification—forested, general farming, residential, and orchard farming. All water and fish samples showed pesticide concentrations less than the U.S. Public Health Service's (1969) recommended maximum permissible concentration. However, no fish were found in the orchard area stream at the time collection was attempted. DOT or one of its metabolites was the most frequently occurring insecticide...
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Lake Rousseau, about 4 miles southwest of Inglis, Florida, was formed in 1909 by impoundment of the Withlacooche River by Inglis Dam, west of Dunnellon, Florida. The lake was to have been part of the Cross-Florida Barge Canal; a lock and channel associated with the presently inactive project were completed in 1969. Lake Rousseau is about 11 miles long, covers about 4,000 acres, and contains about 34,000 acre-feet of water at the normal pool elevation of 27.5 feet above mean sea level. Inflow to the lake is relatively constant and responds slowly to rainfall. The estimated 100-year peak inflow, 10,400 cubic feet per second, is only 19 percent higher than the 100-year high monthly inflow. Water in Lake Rousseau is...
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Knowledge of the basic hydrology of North Carolina 's major estuaries and sounds is necessary to help solve hydrology-related estuarine problems which include contamination of some estuaries with municipal and industrial wastes and drainage from adjacent intensively-farmed areas, nuisance-level algal blooms, excessive shoaling in some navigation channels, saltwater intrusion into usually fresh estuarine reaches, too-high or too-low salinities in nursery areas for various estuarine species, and flood damages due to hurricanes. Saltwater intrusion occurs from time to time in all major estuaries in North Carolina except the Roanoke River, where releases from Roanoke Rapids Lake and other reservoirs during otherwise...
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Annual-peak discharge records at 50 sites in Puerto Rico with five or more years of record were used to determine individual site log-Pearson type III frequency curves. The frequency curve values for 2-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals at 37 sites with 10 or more years of record were regressed against basin characteristics. Drainage area and mean annual rainfall proved to be the only independent variables significant at the 95 percent confidence level in these regression equations. (Woodard-USGS)
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Nitrogen in the unsaturated soil zone in the vicinity of Redlands in San Bernardino County, Calif., has been suspected as the source of nitrate in water from wells. Plans have been made to recharge the aquifer with imported surface water. If this occurs, the rising water table will intercept soluble nitrate in the unsaturated zone. This study was made to quantify and delineate the distribution of the nitrate in the unsaturated zone. Thirteen test holes were drilled in areas of various land uses, and samples of the unsaturated-zone materials were obtained with depth. In 10 of the test holes, the maximum nitrate-nitrogen (N03--N) concentrations occurred within 10 feet of land surface suggesting N03--N sources at the...
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This report documents a finite-element model for simulation of ground-water flow in a two-aquifer system where the two aquifers are coupled by a leakage term that represents flow through a confining layer separating the two aquifers. The model was developed by Timothy J. Durbin (U.S. Geological Survey) for use in ground-water investigations in southern California. The documentation assumes that the reader is familiar with the physics of ground-water flow, numerical methods of solving partial-differential equations, and the FORTRAN IV computer language. It was prepared as part of the investigations made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District. (Kosco-USGS)
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A two-dimensional digital flow model was used to estimate the effects of continuous pumping of a public-supply well field on the ground-water levels near Taylorsville, Indiana. Results of the modeling showed that the water levels would decline from less than 1 to about 4.5 feet within the study area and a maximum of 1 to 2 feet in Taylorsville in response to a pumping rate of 700 gallons per minute. Model results also show that the ground-water system would reach steady state in approximately 5 years after pumping begins. Corrections applied to water-level declines indicated by the model, to account for the effects of partial penetration of the aquifer by wells, showed that these effects, although substantial in...
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Part of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore shares a common boundary with the Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO). This area is underlain by unconsolidated deposits approximately 180 feet thick. NIPSCO accumulates fly ash from the burning of coal in electric-power generating units in settling ponds. Seepage from the ponds has raised ground-water levels above natural levels approximately 15 feet under the ponds and more than 10 feet within the Lakeshore. NIPSCO is presently (1977) constructing a nuclear powerplant, and construction activities include pumping ground water to dewater the construction site. The company has installed a slurry wall around the site to prevent lowering of ground-water levels...
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A steady increase in the chloride and nitrate content of water in a sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin in the Cortland, N.Y., area prompted a study to obtain data on the extent and source of these constituents. Chloride concentration in the upper part of the aquifer increased generally from 2 mg/liter in 1930 to 20 mg/liter in 1976, and nitrate concentration (as nitrogen) in the upper part of the aquifer increased from 1 mg/liter in 1930 to an average of 4 mg/liter in 1976. Although the ground water is normally very hard, its quality generally meets State standards for source waters used for drinking. Road salting and farming seem to be the primary cause of chloride increases, although septic systems may...
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Ground-water discharge to Willow Creek in northeast Nebraska was predicted with a digital model of the ground-water/surface-water system. Recharge and irrigation requirements were determined with a model of the soil zone. The regional aquifer is Pliocene and Pleistocene sands and gravels. Water in the regional aquifer is unconfined in the western part of the watershed and confined in the eastern part. The confining layer is Pleistocene eolian silts with very fine sand interbeds overlying a basal clay. Where the regional aquifer is unconfined, perennial flow of Willow Creek is sustained by ground-water discharge. Where it is confined, the low hydraulic conductivity of the confining beds isolates the regional aquifer...