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Long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies for the Netherlands were studied, using a MARKAL energy model. The EMS study identifies longterm technological options for greenhouse gas emission reduction and assesses their cost-effectiveness, taking interactions between technologies into account. The project consisted of three parts: carbon dioxyde (CO 2) emission reduction in the energy system, integrated reduction of greenhouse gases from the energy system with consideration of upstream emissions and CO 2 reduction in the integrated energy and materials system. 500 energy technologies were assessed for their reduction potential. Significant emission reduction seems possible, but it takes an array of measures...
Evidence from cross-sectional growth regressions suggests that economies dependent on natural resource exports have had slower growth than resource scarce economies. Explanations for this "curse of resources" focus on institutional and market failures caused by resource abundance. With a simple two sector model exhaustible resource model, we demonstrate that the correlation between growth and natural resource abundance can be negative in the absence of market and institutional failures. Since there is no way to distinguish between efficient and inefficient equilibria on the basis of the negative correlation between growth and resource abundance, finding that correlation is not sufficient to conclude resources are...
The opportunities for long term energy efficiency improvement in industry have been studied. Three studies are described. The first study was directed at making a preliminary survey of technologies that might reduce the end-use demand of industrial processes on the long term. The second study focused on the development of a methodology to make a more profound analysis of the long term potential. The third study describes a database for energy efficient technologies. It is concluded that, after technologies that are currently technically feasible have been implemented, there still exists a considerable (new) potential for improvement.
Designed to provide insights into policies relative to human resource investments and employment information channels, the study's objectives were to: (1) relate types of employment in Wyoming's uranium mines and mills to work force participants; (2) determine employee earnings and relate those earnings to employment categories and characteristics; (3) examine employee tenure and turnover patterns; and (4) describe employment channels of information. Between December 1971 and June 1972, data were collected on 1,059 males via questionnaires administered to either the manager or personnel manager of each of 6 Wyoming uranium operations and via questionnaires taken to county Employment Security Commission offices in...
Energy and mineral development, particularly coalbed natural gas development, is proceeding at a rapid pace in the Powder River Structural Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming. Concerns about the potential effects of development led to formation of an interagency working group of primarily Federal and State agencies to address these issues in the PRB in Wyoming and in Montana where similar types of resources exist but are largely undeveloped. Under the direction of the interagency working group, an ecological assessment of streams in the PRB was initiated to determine the current status (2005-06) and to establish a baseline for future monitoring. The ecological assessment components include assessment of stream habitat...
A study using multiple techniques provided insight into tectonic influences on ground water systems; the results can help to understand ground water systems in the tectonically active western United States and other parts of the world. Ground water in the San Bernardino Valley (Arizona, United States and Sonora, Mexico) is the main source of water for domestic use, cattle ranching (the primary industry), and the preservation of threatened and endangered species. To improve the understanding of ground water occurrence, movement, and sustainability, an investigation was conducted using a number of complementary methods, including major ion geochemistry, isotope hydrology, analysis of gases dissolved in ground water,...
Because of the inevitable depletion of fossil fuels and the corresponding release of carbon to the environment, the global energy future is complex. Some of the consequences may be politically and economically disruptive, and expensive to remedy. For the next several centuries, fuel requirements will increase with population, land use, and ecosystem degradation. Current or projected levels of aggregated energy resource use will not sustain civilization as we know it beyond a few more generations. At the same time, issues of energy security, reliability, sustainability, recoverability, and safety need attention. We supply a top-down, qualitative model—the surety model—to balance expenditures of limited resources...
The main properties of a phytoclimatic model are explained. It is a technique for theoretic simulation but a field work verification is essential. The methodology involves the transformation of a territory's general phytoclimate data into particular phytoclimate estimates. We are dealing with a simple mathematical climate-soil-relief-vegetation model offering the possibility of predicting changes in vegetation liable to occur at any point in the Iberian peninsula's territory, when the climate data values of a site change as compared with data currently estimated. It consequently enables both alterations and sensitivity of potential plant communities to possible climate changes to be detected and predicted at a certain...
This paper presents the links between the climate model IMAGE 2 and the economic model WORLD SCAN, which are set up to obtain an integrated scenario instrument for comprehensive and consistent climate-economy scenarios. The links are made with respect to energy (in WORLD SCAN) and agriculture (in IMAGE 2), thus providing a consistent linkage with feedbacks running both ways.
The contribution of households to CO 2 production is still increasing. To alter patterns of energy consumption for example with respect to commuter traffic, using the freezer, and warming the house, changing life styles related to domestic energy consumption is considered. In our study, we have operationalized life style as means-end chains, that link perceived benefits of a particular behavior to basic values that people pursue. In this paper, preliminary results are presented of the study that is aimed at empirically establishing the feasibility of the concept of life style in relation to domestic energy consumption.
Because of the inevitable depletion of fossil fuels and the corresponding release of carbon to the environment, the global energy future is complex. Some of the consequences may be politically and economically disruptive, and expensive to remedy. For the next several centuries, fuel requirements will increase with population, land use, and ecosystem degradation. Current or projected levels of aggregated energy resource use will not sustain civilization as we know it beyond a few more generations. At the same time, issues of energy security, reliability, sustainability, recoverability, and safety need attention. We supply a top-down, qualitative model—the surety model—to balance expenditures of limited resources...
Thuis empirical note provides a disaggregated analysis of the causal relationship between fossil fuel consumption and real gross domestic product (GDP) in the US using annual data from 1949 to 2006. The Toda-Yamamoto long-run causality tests reveal the absence of Granger-causality between coal consumption and real GDP; positive undirectional causality from real GDP to natural gas consumption; and positive undirectional causality from petroleum consumption to real GDP.
Evidence from cross-sectional growth regressions suggests that economies dependent on natural resource exports have had slower growth than resource scarce economies. Explanations for this "curse of resources" focus on institutional and market failures caused by resource abundance. With a simple two sector model exhaustible resource model, we demonstrate that the correlation between growth and natural resource abundance can be negative in the absence of market and institutional failures. Since there is no way to distinguish between efficient and inefficient equilibria on the basis of the negative correlation between growth and resource abundance, finding that correlation is not sufficient to conclude resources are...
Thuis empirical note provides a disaggregated analysis of the causal relationship between fossil fuel consumption and real gross domestic product (GDP) in the US using annual data from 1949 to 2006. The Toda-Yamamoto long-run causality tests reveal the absence of Granger-causality between coal consumption and real GDP; positive undirectional causality from real GDP to natural gas consumption; and positive undirectional causality from petroleum consumption to real GDP.