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Long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies for the Netherlands were studied, using a MARKAL energy model. The EMS study identifies longterm technological options for greenhouse gas emission reduction and assesses their cost-effectiveness, taking interactions between technologies into account. The project consisted of three parts: carbon dioxyde (CO 2) emission reduction in the energy system, integrated reduction of greenhouse gases from the energy system with consideration of upstream emissions and CO 2 reduction in the integrated energy and materials system. 500 energy technologies were assessed for their reduction potential. Significant emission reduction seems possible, but it takes an array of measures...
The opportunities for long term energy efficiency improvement in industry have been studied. Three studies are described. The first study was directed at making a preliminary survey of technologies that might reduce the end-use demand of industrial processes on the long term. The second study focused on the development of a methodology to make a more profound analysis of the long term potential. The third study describes a database for energy efficient technologies. It is concluded that, after technologies that are currently technically feasible have been implemented, there still exists a considerable (new) potential for improvement.
Because of the inevitable depletion of fossil fuels and the corresponding release of carbon to the environment, the global energy future is complex. Some of the consequences may be politically and economically disruptive, and expensive to remedy. For the next several centuries, fuel requirements will increase with population, land use, and ecosystem degradation. Current or projected levels of aggregated energy resource use will not sustain civilization as we know it beyond a few more generations. At the same time, issues of energy security, reliability, sustainability, recoverability, and safety need attention. We supply a top-down, qualitative model—the surety model—to balance expenditures of limited resources...
This paper presents the links between the climate model IMAGE 2 and the economic model WORLD SCAN, which are set up to obtain an integrated scenario instrument for comprehensive and consistent climate-economy scenarios. The links are made with respect to energy (in WORLD SCAN) and agriculture (in IMAGE 2), thus providing a consistent linkage with feedbacks running both ways.
Because of the inevitable depletion of fossil fuels and the corresponding release of carbon to the environment, the global energy future is complex. Some of the consequences may be politically and economically disruptive, and expensive to remedy. For the next several centuries, fuel requirements will increase with population, land use, and ecosystem degradation. Current or projected levels of aggregated energy resource use will not sustain civilization as we know it beyond a few more generations. At the same time, issues of energy security, reliability, sustainability, recoverability, and safety need attention. We supply a top-down, qualitative model—the surety model—to balance expenditures of limited resources...