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The presence of strong surface-wave noise in surface microseismic data may decrease the utility of these data. We implement a technique, based on the distinct characteristics that microseismic signal and noise show in the τ‐p domain, to suppress surface-wave noise in microseismic data. Because most microseismic source mechanisms are deviatoric, preprocessing is necessary to correct for the nonuniform radiation pattern prior to transforming the data to the τ‐p domain. We employ a scanning approach, similar to semblance analysis, to test all possible double-couple orientations to determine an estimated orientation that best accounts for the polarity pattern of any microseismic events. We then correct the polarity...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geophysics
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A hybrid fast Hankel transform algorithm has been developed that uses several complementary features of two existing algorithms: Anderson's digital filtering or fast Hankel transform (FHT) algorithm and Chave's quadrature and continued fraction algorithm. A hybrid FHT subprogram (called HYBFHT) written in standard Fortran-77 provides a simple user interface to call either subalgorithm. The hybrid approach is an attempt to combine the best features of the two subalgorithms to minimize the user's coding requirements and to provide fast execution and good accuracy for a large class of electromagnetic problems involving various related Hankel transform sets with multiple arguments. Special cases of Hankel transforms...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geophysics
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The conventional inversion of surface waves depends on modal identification of measured dispersion curves, which can be ambiguous. It is possible to avoid mode-number identification and extraction by inverting the complete phase-velocity spectrum obtained from a multichannel record. We use the fast simulated annealing (FSA) global search algorithm to minimize the difference between the measured phase-velocity spectrum and that calculated from a theoretical layer model, including the field setup geometry. Results show that this algorithm can help one avoid getting trapped in local minima while searching for the best-matching layer model. The entire procedure is demonstrated on synthetic and field data for asphalt...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geophysics
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Radioactivity measurements have played an important role in geophysics since about 1935, and they have increased in importance to the present. The most important areas of application have been in petroleum and uranium exploration. Radioactivity measurements have proved useful in geologic mapping, as well as in specialized applications such as reactor-site monitoring. The technological development of the method has reached a plateau, and the future of the method for some applications will depend upon development of more sophisticated data processing and interpretation. -Author
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geophysics
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In this review of developments in the field of remote sensing from a geophysical perspective, the subject is limited to the electromagnetic spectrum from 0.4 mu m to 25cm. Three broad energy categories are covered: solar reflected, thermal infrared, and microwave.-from Authorremote sensing electromagnetic spectrum solar reflected thermal infrared microwave geophysics
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geophysics
Geomechanical modeling of induced seismicity source parameters and implications for seismic hazard assessment, credited to Goertz-Allmann, BP, published in 2012. Published in Geophysics, volume 78, issue 1, in 2012.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Geophysics
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Time-dependent gravimetric measurements can detect subsurface processes long before magma flow leads to earthquakes or other eruption precursors. The ability of gravity measurements to detect subsurface mass flow is greatly enhanced if gravity measurements are analyzed and modeled with ground-deformation data. Obtaining the maximum information from microgravity studies requires careful evaluation of the layout of network benchmarks, the gravity environmental signal, and the coupling between gravity changes and crustal deformation. When changes in the system under study are fast (hours to weeks), as in hydrothermal systems and restless volcanoes, continuous gravity observations at selected sites can help to capture...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geophysics
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Velocities were obtained from unreversed, refracted arrivals on analog records from a 48‐channel, 3.6-km hydrophone cable (3.89 km from the airgun array to the last hydrophone array). Approximately 200 records were analyzed along 1500 km of ship track on Georges Bank, northwest Atlantic Ocean, to obtain regional sediment velocity distribution to a depth of 1.4 km below sea level. This technique provides nearly continuous coverage of refraction velocities and vertical velocity gradients. Because of the length of the hydrophone cable and the vertical velocity gradients, the technique is applicable only to the Continental Shelf and the shallower parts of the Continental Slope in water depths less than 300 m. Sediment...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geophysics
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In the interpretation of induced polarization data, it is commonly assumed that metallic mineral polarization dominantly or solely causes the observed response. However, at low frequencies, there is a variety of active chemical processes which involve the movement or transfer of electrical charge. Measurements of electrical properties at low frequencies (such as induced polarization) observe such movement of charge and thus monitor many geochemical processes at a distance. Examples in which this has been done include oxidation-reduction of metallic minerals such as sulfides, cation exchange on clays, and a variety of clay-organic reactions relevant to problems in toxic waste disposal and petroleum exploration. By...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geophysics
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Repeated high-precision gravity measurements using an automated gravimeter and analysis of time series of 1-Hz samples allowed gravity measurements to be made with an accuracy of 5 ??Gal or better. Nonlinear instrument drift was removed using a new empirical staircase function built from multiple station loops. The new technique was developed between March 1999 and September 2000 in a pilot study conducted in the southern Salt Lake Valley along an east-west profile of eight stations from the Wasatch Mountains to the Jordan River. Gravity changes at eight profile stations were referenced to a set of five stations in the northern Salt Lake Valley, which showed residual signals of <10 ??Gal in amplitude, assuming a...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geophysics
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Using California as a test region, we have examined the feasibility of using Curie-isotherm depths, estimated from magnetic anomalies, as a proxy for lithospheric thermal structure. Our method follows previous studies by dividing a regional aeromagnetic database into overlapping subregions and analyzing the power-density spectrum of each subregion, but we have improved on previous studies in two important ways: We increase subregion dimensions in a stepwise manner until long-wavelength anomalies are appropriately sampled, and each subregion spectrum determined from the magnetic anomalies is manually fit with a theoretical expression that directly yields the depth to the bottom of the magnetic layer. Using this method,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geophysics
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Determining the extent and location of surface/near-surface structural deformation in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) is very important for evaluating earthquake hazards. A shallow shear-wave splitting experiment, located near the crest of the Lake County uplift (LCU) in the central NMSZ, shows the presence of near-surface azimuthal anisotropy believed to be associated with neotectonic deformation. A shallow fourcomponent data set, recorded using a hammer and mass source, displayed abundant shallow reflection energy on records made with orthogonal source-receiver orientations, an indicator of shear-wave splitting. Following rotation of the data matrix by 40??, the S1 and S2 sections (principal components of the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geophysics


map background search result map search result map Compressional velocities from multichannel refraction arrivals on Georges Bank: northwest Atlantic Ocean Compressional velocities from multichannel refraction arrivals on Georges Bank: northwest Atlantic Ocean