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Terrestrial net primary production (NPP) quantifies the amount of atmospheric carbon fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. Previous studies have shown that climate constraints were relaxing with increasing temperature and solar radiation, allowing an upward trend in NPP from 1982 through 1999. The past decade (2000 to 2009) has been the warmest since instrumental measurements began, which could imply continued increases in NPP; however, our estimates suggest a reduction in the global NPP of 0.55 petagrams of carbon. Large-scale droughts have reduced regional NPP, and a drying trend in the Southern Hemisphere has decreased NPP in that area, counteracting the increased NPP over the Northern Hemisphere. A continued...
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The Last of the Wild represents the least influenced (most wild) areas of major terrestrial biomes. Most wild in each biome are defined as areas with Human Footprint Index values less than or equal to 10. The map shows the distribution of what remains the least influenced areas in each biome. The Last of the Wild Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 2, 2005 (LWP-2) is derived from the LWP-2 Human Footprint Dataset. The gridded data are classified according to their raster value (wild = 0-10; not wild >10). The ten largest polygons of more than 5 square kilometers within each biome by realm are selected and identified. The dataset is produced by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and the Columbia...
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The Global Human Influence Index Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 2, 2005 (LWP-2) is a global dataset of 1-kilometer grid cells, created from nine global data layers covering human population pressure (population density), human land use and infrastructure (built-up areas, nighttime lights, land use/land cover), and human access (coastlines, roads, railroads, navigable rivers). The dataset is produced by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and the Columbia University Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). The Human Influence Index (HII) is a measure of direct human influence on terrestrial ecosystems using the best available data sets on human settlement (population...
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For each CSIRO Mk3.0 gridcell: An average precipitation was calculated for 1961-1990 based on the simulated transient historical data. Result is a 12 month simulated climatology at the scale of the CSIRO Mk3.0 grid. For each forecast month a ratio anomaly was calculated (ex. January_2021 / Mean_historical_January). Anomalies were capped at 5.0. Result is a 100 year monthly set of precipitation anomalies at the scale of the CSIRO Mk3.0 grid. For each forecast month: Gridded anomalies were interpolated to a ½ degree grid using a bilinear interpolation. For each forecast month and each ½ degree gridcell: The anomaly for that month is mulitplied to the CRU historical precipitation (ex. CRU_Mean_January_1961-1990...
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This inventory was originally created by Harp and Jibson (1995) describing the landslides triggered by the M 6.7 Northridge, California earthquake that occurred on 17 January 1994 at 12:30:55 UTC. Care should be taken when comparing with other inventories because different authors use different mapping techniques. This inventory also could be associated with other earthquakes such as aftershocks or triggered events. Please check the author methods summary and the original data source for more information on these details and to confirm the viability of this inventory for your specific use. With the exception of the data from USGS sources, the inventory data and associated metadata were not acquired by the U.S....
This paper presents information relevant to rule-making for geopressuredgeothermal development on state-owned lands. The analysis is focused on those potential social and economic effects of resource development, if any, which may require special attention during the leasing and permitting process. For the most part, many of the expected socioeconomic impacts are not unique to geothermal development, but are already being felt by residents of the fairways because of ongoing developmental activities. The social and economic impacts likely to result from resource development depend upon characteristics specific to the site and surrounding social and economic systems. Specific impacts and their probability, magnitude,...
Plastics have now become indispensable materials in the modern world and application in the industrial field is continually increasing. The properties of the oil derived from waste plastics were analyzed and found that it has properties similar to that of diesel. Waste plastic oil (WPO) was tested as a fuel in a D.I. diesel engine and its performance characteristics were analysed and compared with diesel fuel (DF) operation. It is observed that the engine could operate with 100% waste plastic oil and can be used as fuel in diesel engines. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) was higher by about 25% and carbon monoxide (CO) increased by 5% for waste plastic oil operation compared to diesel fuel (DF) operation. Hydrocarbon was...
A complete understanding of the resource consumption, embodied energy, and environmental emissions of civil projects in China is difficult due to the lack of comprehensive national statistics. To quantitatively assess the energy and environmental impacts of civil construction at a macro-level, this study developed a 24 sector environmental input-output life-cycle assessment model (I-O LCA) based on 2002 Chinese national economic and environmental data. The model generates an economy-wide inventory of energy use and environmental emissions. Estimates based on the level of economic activity related to planned future civil works in 2015 are made. Results indicate that the embodied energy of construction projects accounts...
Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam3 in 1980 to over 40.1 hm3 in 2009 — and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol...
Recently, an active debate has emerged around greenhouse gas emissions due to indirect land use change (iLUC) of expanding agricultural areas dedicated to biofuel production. In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of the iLUC effect, and further address the issues of deforestation, irrigation water use, and crop price increases due to expanding biofuel acreage. We use GLOBIOM – an economic partial equilibrium model of the global forest, agriculture, and biomass sectors with a bottom-up representation of agricultural and forestry management practices. The results indicate that second generation biofuel production fed by wood from sustainably managed existing forests would lead to a negative iLUC factor, meaning...
High-temporal resolution meteorological output from the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) is used to assess changes in wildland fire danger across the western United States due to climatic changes projected in the 21st century. A business-as-usual scenario incorporating changing greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations until the year 2089 is compared to a 1975 - 1996 base period. Changes in relative humidity, especially drying over much of the West, are projected to increase the number of days of high fire danger ( based on the energy release component (ERC) index) at least through the year 2089 in comparison to the base period. The regions most affected are the northern Rockies, Great Basin and the Southwest - regions...
We have developed a state-scale version of the MARKAL energy optimization model, commonly used to model energy policy at the US national scale and internationally. We apply the model to address state-scale impacts of a renewable electricity standard (RES) and a carbon tax in one southeastern state, Georgia. Biomass is the lowest cost option for large-scale renewable generation in Georgia; we find that electricity can be generated from biomass co-firing at existing coal plants for a marginal cost above baseline of 0.2-2.2 cents/kWh and from dedicated biomass facilities for 3.0-5.5 cents/kWh above baseline. We evaluate the cost and amount of renewable electricity that would be produced in-state and the amount of out-of-state...
This report surveys the definitions of reserve services used in several countries and regions of Europe and the United States that have implemented competitive electricity markets. It also compares the technical specifications of these services. The systems considered are Great Britain, PJM, California, Spain, The Netherlands, Germany, France, Belgium as well as UCTE as a whole.
Chemical treatment methods have been used with varying degrees of success for mitigating the environmental effects resulting from oil spills. These methods include dispersing, herding, and gelling a floating oil slick; sinking the oil; burning the oil mass either on open waters or on the affected shoreline; and applying film-forming chemical agents to protect shorelines from oil that eludes offshore cleanup. The latest technical information on the applicability and effectiveness of these approaches for treating and controlling oil spills is presented
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EXPO-CAT is a catalog of human exposure to discrete levels of shaking intensity, obtained by correlating Atlas ShakeMaps with a global population database. Combining this population exposure dataset with historical earthquake loss data provides a useful resource for calibrating loss methodologies against a systematically-derived set of ShakeMap hazard outputs. EXPO-CAT is derived from two key datasets: the PAGER-CAT earthquake catalog and the Atlas of ShakeMaps. PAGER-CAT provides accurate earthquake source information necessary to compute reliable ShakeMaps in the Atlas. It also contributes loss information (i.e., number of deaths and injuries) from historical events. Using historical earthquakes in the Atlas and...
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This is a combination of CRU monthly averages of tmp (daily mean temperature) and dtr (diurnal temperature range). Tmin is calculated as tmp - (0.5dtr). This particular map is an average for all months for the years 1961-1990.
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This study analyzes quantitative and qualitative information and develops selected indicators of the condition of the world's freshwater systems. The condition is defined as the current and future capacity of the systems to continue providing the full range of goods and services needed or valued by humans. Where available, we use global data sets to illustrate key indicators. In cases in which global data are not available, we use regional- and national-level information to illustrate important concepts, indicators, trends, and issues. Sometimes, local-level case studies have been used to illustrate trends that appear to be important but for which national or global data do not exist.
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For each CSIRO Mk3.0 gridcell: An average precipitation was calculated for 1961-1990 based on the simulated transient historical data. Result is a 12 month simulated climatology at the scale of the CSIRO Mk3.0 grid. For each forecast month a ratio anomaly was calculated (ex. January_2021 / Mean_historical_January). Anomalies were capped at 5.0. Result is a 100 year monthly set of precipitation anomalies at the scale of the CSIRO Mk3.0 grid. For each forecast month: Gridded anomalies were interpolated to a ½ degree grid using a bilinear interpolation. For each forecast month and each ½ degree gridcell: The anomaly for that month is mulitplied to the CRU historical precipitation (ex. CRU_Mean_January_1961-1990...
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This inventory was originally created by Papathanassiou and others (2013) describing the landslides triggered by the M 6.3 Lefkada, Greece earthquake that occurred on 14 August 2003 at 05:14:54 UTC. Care should be taken when comparing with other inventories because different authors use different mapping techniques. This inventory also could be associated with other earthquakes such as aftershocks or triggered events. Please check the author methods summary and the original data source for more information on these details and to confirm the viability of this inventory for your specific use. With the exception of the data from USGS sources, the inventory data and associated metadata were not acquired by the U.S....
The effects of 120 days of high-intensity (80-kV/m) 60-Hz electric field exposure on hematologic constituents were investigated using a three-generation design including 135 field-exposed and 135 sham-exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats. Statistical tests performed included the multivariate analysis of variance, the univariate analysis of variance, and tests of simple effects. Total white cell count, lymphocyte count, and eosinophil count were significantly lower in field-exposed subjects; however, none of the red cell parameters differed significantly. The observed hematologic variations related to the exposure of a high-intensity electric field are consistent with those observed in animals responding to a mild stressor.


map background search result map search result map Global Mean Monthly Minimum Temperature (degrees C) for Historical Period 1961-1990 Last of the Wild terrestrial biomes, Asia (2005) Human Influence Index, North America (2005) Global Average Annual Sum Precipitation (mm) for CSIRO Mk3.0 SRES B1 at a ½ Degree Grid Resolution (2070-2099) Global Average Annual Sum Precipitation (mm) for CSIRO Mk3.0 SRES A2 at a ½ Degree Grid Resolution, 2070-2099 Trends in Inland Capture Fisheries by Country, 1984 - 1997 Gobal terrestrial net primary productivity trends (gC/m2/yr) from 2000 to 2009 Harp and Jibson (1995) Papathanassiou and others (2013) Papathanassiou and others (2013) Harp and Jibson (1995) Human Influence Index, North America (2005) Last of the Wild terrestrial biomes, Asia (2005) Gobal terrestrial net primary productivity trends (gC/m2/yr) from 2000 to 2009 Trends in Inland Capture Fisheries by Country, 1984 - 1997 Global Mean Monthly Minimum Temperature (degrees C) for Historical Period 1961-1990 Global Average Annual Sum Precipitation (mm) for CSIRO Mk3.0 SRES B1 at a ½ Degree Grid Resolution (2070-2099) Global Average Annual Sum Precipitation (mm) for CSIRO Mk3.0 SRES A2 at a ½ Degree Grid Resolution, 2070-2099