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High-temporal resolution meteorological output from the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) is used to assess changes in wildland fire danger across the western United States due to climatic changes projected in the 21st century. A business-as-usual scenario incorporating changing greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations until the year 2089 is compared to a 1975 - 1996 base period. Changes in relative humidity, especially drying over much of the West, are projected to increase the number of days of high fire danger ( based on the energy release component (ERC) index) at least through the year 2089 in comparison to the base period. The regions most affected are the northern Rockies, Great Basin and the Southwest - regions...
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This inventory was originally created by Papathanassiou and others (2013) describing the landslides triggered by the M 6.3 Lefkada, Greece earthquake that occurred on 14 August 2003 at 05:14:54 UTC. Care should be taken when comparing with other inventories because different authors use different mapping techniques. This inventory also could be associated with other earthquakes such as aftershocks or triggered events. Please check the author methods summary and the original data source for more information on these details and to confirm the viability of this inventory for your specific use. With the exception of the data from USGS sources, the inventory data and associated metadata were not acquired by the U.S....
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The ReefBase Coral Bleaching dataset provides observation details of coral bleaching occurrences (or lack thereof) around the world. This dataset was built upon an original bleaching database developed at UNEP-WCMC, and has been maintained and updated regularly by ReefBase since early 2002. Main sources of information for this dataset have been: published records from the literature, postings on the coral-list (http://www.coral.noaa.gov/lists/), the ReefBase online Bleaching Report (http://www.reefbase.org/contribute/bleachingreport.aspx), and through collaborations with numerous institutions and individuals. ReefBase would like to particularly acknowledge the contributions made by: National Oceanographic and Atmospheric...
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One method of mapping the difference in vegetation is a measurement known as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This image shows NDVI from Nov. 1, 2007, to Dec. 1, 2007, during autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. This monthly average is based on observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. The greenness values on this global map range from -0.1 to 0.9, but have no actual unit. Instead, higher values (dark greens) show land areas with plenty of leafy green vegetation, such as the Amazon Rainforest. Lower values (beige to white) show areas with little or no vegetation, including sand seas and Arctic areas. Areas with moderate amounts of vegetation...
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For each CSIRO Mk3.0 gridcell: A 12-month average temperature was calculated for 1961-1990 based on the simulated transient historical data. Result is a 12 month simulated climatology at the scale of the CSIRO Mk3.0 grid. For each forecast month a difference anomaly was calculated (ex. January_2021 – Mean_historical_January). Result is a 100 year monthly set of temperature anomalies at the scale of the CSIRO Mk3.0 grid. For each forecast month: Gridded anomalies were interpolated to a ½ degree grid using a bilinear interpolation. For each forecast month and each ½ degree gridcell: The anomaly for that month is added to the CRU historical mean temperature (ex. CRU_Mean_January_1961-1990 + January_2021_anomaly)....
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This is aggregated results from a run of the MC1 model (MC1_GLOBAL version). The GCM data were downscaled to a half degree grid resolution using an anomaly approach. The baseline historical data was based on CRU TS 2.0 climate. For this map percent change was calculated as: (((Future – Historical)/Historical)*100) Where Future is the average value for 2050-2099 and Historical is the average value for 1950-1999. See related datasets: http://app.databasin.org/app/pages/galleryPage.jsp?id=f7eee62457f641dd85016b7fec7e7c67
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The Last of the Wild represents the least influenced (most wild) areas of major terrestrial biomes. Most wild in each biome are defined as areas with Human Footprint Index values less than or equal to 10. The map shows the distribution of what remains the least influenced areas in each biome. The Last of the Wild Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 2, 2005 (LWP-2) is derived from the LWP-2 Human Footprint Dataset. The gridded data are classified according to their raster value (wild = 0-10; not wild >10). The ten largest polygons of more than 5 square kilometers within each biome by realm are selected and identified. The dataset is produced by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and the Columbia...
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The Last of the Wild represents the least influenced (most wild) areas of major terrestrial biomes. Most wild in each biome are defined as areas with Human Footprint Index values less than or equal to 10. The map shows the distribution of what remains the least influenced areas in each biome. The Last of the Wild Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 2, 2005 (LWP-2) is derived from the LWP-2 Human Footprint Dataset. The gridded data are classified according to their raster value (wild = 0-10; not wild >10). The ten largest polygons of more than 5 square kilometers within each biome by realm are selected and identified. The dataset is produced by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and the Columbia...
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The Global Human Influence Index Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 2, 2005 (LWP-2) is a global dataset of 1-kilometer grid cells, created from nine global data layers covering human population pressure (population density), human land use and infrastructure (built-up areas, nighttime lights, land use/land cover), and human access (coastlines, roads, railroads, navigable rivers). The dataset is produced by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and the Columbia University Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). The Human Influence Index (HII) is a measure of direct human influence on terrestrial ecosystems using the best available data sets on human settlement (population...
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For each MIROC gridcell: An average precipitation was calculated for 1961-1990 based on the simulated transient historical data. Result is a 12 month simulated climatology at the scale of the MIROC grid. For each forecast month a ratio anomaly was calculated (ex. January_2021 / Mean_historical_January). Anomalies were capped at 5.0. Result is a 100 year monthly set of precipitation anomalies at the scale of the MIROC grid. For each forecast month: Gridded anomalies were interpolated to a ½ degree grid using a bilinear interpolation. For each forecast month and each ½ degree gridcell: The anomaly for that month is mulitplied to the CRU historical precipitation (ex. CRU_Mean_January_1961-1990 x...
Although climate change is an important factor affecting inland fishes globally, a comprehensive review of how climate change has impacted and will continue to impact inland fishes worldwide does not currently exist. We conducted an extensive, systematic primary literature review to identify peer-reviewed publications with projected and documented examples of climate change impacts on inland fishes globally. Since the mid-1980s, scientists have projected the effects of climate change on inland fishes, and more recently, documentation of climate change impacts on inland fishes has increased. Of the thousands of title and abstracts reviewed, we selected 624 publications for a full text review: 63 of these publications...
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This is a map of historical ("presettlement") vegetation for the state of Oregon, created with Arcview 3.2 by merging digital data from different sources: H. J. Andrews, General Land Office (GLO), Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO), BLM, Oregon Gap analysis. The H. J. Andrews map forms the background into which more detailed coverages were incorporated. The data consist of an ArcView shapefile. Scale varies throughout the coverage, depending on the source of the data; the overall scale is 1:100,000.
We have developed a state-scale version of the MARKAL energy optimization model, commonly used to model energy policy at the US national scale and internationally. We apply the model to address state-scale impacts of a renewable electricity standard (RES) and a carbon tax in one southeastern state, Georgia. Biomass is the lowest cost option for large-scale renewable generation in Georgia; we find that electricity can be generated from biomass co-firing at existing coal plants for a marginal cost above baseline of 0.2-2.2 cents/kWh and from dedicated biomass facilities for 3.0-5.5 cents/kWh above baseline. We evaluate the cost and amount of renewable electricity that would be produced in-state and the amount of out-of-state...
This report surveys the definitions of reserve services used in several countries and regions of Europe and the United States that have implemented competitive electricity markets. It also compares the technical specifications of these services. The systems considered are Great Britain, PJM, California, Spain, The Netherlands, Germany, France, Belgium as well as UCTE as a whole.
Chemical treatment methods have been used with varying degrees of success for mitigating the environmental effects resulting from oil spills. These methods include dispersing, herding, and gelling a floating oil slick; sinking the oil; burning the oil mass either on open waters or on the affected shoreline; and applying film-forming chemical agents to protect shorelines from oil that eludes offshore cleanup. The latest technical information on the applicability and effectiveness of these approaches for treating and controlling oil spills is presented
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Level 3 of the Global Lakes and Wetlands Database (GLWD) comprises lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and different wetland types in the form of a global raster map at 30-sec resolution.
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This inventory was originally created by Gorum and others (2011) describing the landslides triggered by the M 7.9 Wenchuan, China earthquake that occurred on 12 May 2008 at 06:28:01 UTC. Care should be taken when comparing with other inventories because different authors use different mapping techniques. This inventory also could be associated with other earthquakes such as aftershocks or triggered events. Please check the author methods summary and the original data source for more information on these details and to confirm the viability of this inventory for your specific use. With the exception of the data from USGS sources, the inventory data and associated metadata were not acquired by the U.S. Geological...
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This inventory was originally created by Basharat and others (2016) describing the landslides triggered by the M 7.6 Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake that occurred on 8 October 2005 at 03:50:40 UTC. Care should be taken when comparing with other inventories because different authors use different mapping techniques. This inventory also could be associated with other earthquakes such as aftershocks or triggered events. Please check the author methods summary and the original data source for more information on these details and to confirm the viability of this inventory for your specific use. With the exception of the data from USGS sources, the inventory data and associated metadata were not acquired by the U.S. Geological...
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This inventory was originally created by Rymer (1987) describing the landslides triggered by the M 5.7 San Salvador, El Salvador earthquake that occurred on 10 October 1986 at 17:49:24 UTC. Care should be taken when comparing with other inventories because different authors use different mapping techniques. This inventory also could be associated with other earthquakes such as aftershocks or triggered events. Please check the author methods summary and the original data source for more information on these details and to confirm the viability of this inventory for your specific use. With the exception of the data from USGS sources, the inventory data and associated metadata were not acquired by the U.S. Geological...
The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data of the nearshore region of the North Pacific show temperature ranges in degrees C using points whose locations correspond to the centroids of AVHRR Pathfinder version 5 monthly, global, 4 km data set (PFSST V50). The pathfinder rasters are available from the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), hosted by NASA JPL. The data points in this dataset lie within a 20 km buffer from the GSHHS (Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Shoreline) coastline. The GSHHS vector data are available from the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). Furthermore, each point in the SST dataset is categorized by the ecoregion in which it is located. This...


map background search result map search result map Oregon Historic Vegetation Percent change in biomass consumed by fire for years 2050-2099 versus 1950-1999 simulated using the MC1 model with CSIRO Mk3.0 climate projections under the A1B anthropogenic emission scenario at a half degree spatial grain over the globe. Last of the Wild terrestrial biomes, South America (2005) Last of the Wild terrestrial biomes, Europe (2005) Human Influence Index, South America (2005) Global Average Annual Sum Precipitation (mm) for MIROC 3.2 SRES A2 medres at a 1/2 Degree Grid Resolution, 2070-2099 Global Average Monthly Temperature for 2070-2099, CSIRO Mk3.0 SRES B1 at a ½ Degree Grid Resolution Global Greenness based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index World Coral Bleaching Occurrences Gorum and others (2011) Papathanassiou and others (2013) Rymer (1987) Basharat and others (2016) Rymer (1987) Papathanassiou and others (2013) Basharat and others (2016) Gorum and others (2011) Oregon Historic Vegetation Last of the Wild terrestrial biomes, Europe (2005) Last of the Wild terrestrial biomes, South America (2005) World Coral Bleaching Occurrences Percent change in biomass consumed by fire for years 2050-2099 versus 1950-1999 simulated using the MC1 model with CSIRO Mk3.0 climate projections under the A1B anthropogenic emission scenario at a half degree spatial grain over the globe. Human Influence Index, South America (2005) Global Greenness based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Global Average Annual Sum Precipitation (mm) for MIROC 3.2 SRES A2 medres at a 1/2 Degree Grid Resolution, 2070-2099 Global Average Monthly Temperature for 2070-2099, CSIRO Mk3.0 SRES B1 at a ½ Degree Grid Resolution