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Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan is described through 1993. Extinction of the native lake trout fishery by sea lamprey predation, augmented by exploitation and habitat destruction, resulted in an extensive stocking program of hatchery-reared lake trout that began in 1965. Sea lamprey abundance was effectively controlled using selective chemical toxicants. The initial stocking produced a measurable wild year class of lake trout by 1976 in Grand Traverse Bay, but failed to continue probably due to excessive exploitation. The overall lack of successful reproduction lakewide by the late 1970s led to the development and implementation in 1985 of a focused inter-agency lakewide restoration plan...
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Necker Ridge, Horizon Guyot and S.P. Lee Guyot in the Central Pacific were sampled, seismically surveyed, and photographed by bottom cameras in order to better understand the distribution, origin, and evolution of ferromanganese crusts. Necker Ridge is over 600 km long with a rugged crest, pods of sediment to 146 m thick, slopes that average 12° to 20°, and debris aprons that cover some of the lower flanks. Substrate lithologies are mostly hyaloclastite, volcaniclastic breccia, and minor alkalic basalt. Horizon Guyot, 300 km long and 75 km wide, is capped by at least 160 m of sediment, which buries stepped terraces. Substrate lithologies are similar to those on Necker Ridge, although previous workers sampled much...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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Septic-system discharges can be an important source of micropollutants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine active compounds) to adjacent groundwater and surface water systems. Groundwater samples were collected from well networks tapping glacial till in New England (NE) and sandy surficial aquifer New York (NY) during one sampling round in 2011. The NE network assesses the effect of a single large septic system that receives discharge from an extended health care facility for the elderly. The NY network assesses the effect of many small septic systems used seasonally on a densely populated portion of Fire Island. The data collected from these two networks indicate that hydrogeologic and demographic factors...
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This paper presents the results of a multi-scale investigation of environmental change in the Old Peanut Basin of Senegal throughout the 20th century. Based on historical accounts, ethnographies, aerial photos, satellite images, field and household surveys as well as various participatory research activities with farmers in selected villages, the study attempts to make explicit layered scales of analysis, both temporally and spatially. It shows that, despite some general trends of resource degradation in the Old Peanut Basin, local farming systems have embarked on different pathways of change to adapt to their evolving environment. It also illustrates that high diversity with respect to soil fertility management...
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Cercopagis pengoi, a zooplanktivore first discovered in Lake Ontario in 1998, may reduce availability of prey for planktivorous fish. Cercoapgis pengoi is most abundant in late summer and fall. Therefore, we hypothesized that abundance of small zooplankton (bosminids and cyclopoids) species would decrease at that time. To determine if the establishment of C. pengoi was followed by changes in the zooplankton community, seasonal patterns in nearshore zooplankton collected from May to October 1995–2000 were examined. Early summer density of small zooplankton was similar in all years while late summer and fall densities were significantly lower in 1998–2000 than in 1995–1997. The declines of small zooplankton coincided...
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We examined Manayunkia speciosa individuals from the Klamath River, Oregon/California and Lake Erie, Michigan, USA for the presence of Microsporidia. We identified microsporidian spores and sequenced their SSU, ITS, and part of the LSU rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA indicated spores from both populations belonged to the Nosema/Vairimorpha clade. PCR showed an infection prevalence in Lake Erie M. speciosa of 0.6% (95% CI = 0.5%, 0.7%). This represents the first known example of molecularly characterized Nosema/Vairimorpha isolates infecting a non-arthropod host.
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Streamwater discharge and chemistry of two small catchments on Catoctin Mountain in north-central Maryland have been monitored since 1982. Repetitive seasonal cycles in stream-water chemistry have been observed each year, along with seasonal cycles in the volume of stream discharge and in groundwater levels. The hypothesis that the observed streamwater chemical cycles are related to seasonal changes in the hydrological flow paths that contribute to streamflow is examined using a combination of data on groundwater levels, shallow and deep groundwater chemistry, streamwater discharge, streamwater chemistry, soil-water chemistry, and estimates of water residence times. The concentrations of constituents derived from...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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Morphodynamic equilibrium is a widely adopted yet elusive concept in the field of geomorphology of coasts, rivers and estuaries. Based on the Exner equation, an expression of mass conservation of sediment, we distinguish three types of equilibrium defined as static and dynamic, of which two different types exist. Other expressions such as statistical and quasi-equilibrium which do not strictly satisfy the Exner conditions are also acknowledged for their practical use. The choice of a temporal scale is imperative to analyse the type of equilibrium. We discuss the difference between morphodynamic equilibrium in the “real world” (nature) and the “virtual world” (model). Modelling studies rely on simplifications of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Earth-Science Reviews
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This work demonstrates how available knowledge can be used to build more transparent and refutable computer models of groundwater systems. The Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, which surrounds a proposed site for a high level nuclear waste repository of the United States of America, and the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where nuclear weapons were tested, is used to explore model adequacy, identify parameters important to (and informed by) observations, and identify existing old and potential new observations important to predictions. Model development is pursued using a set of fundamental questions addressed with carefully designed metrics. Critical methods include using a hydrogeologic model,...
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In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean–atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010–2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~ 140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Quaternary Research
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Migratory species support ecosystem process and function in multiple areas, establishing ecological linkages between their different habitats. As they travel, migratory species also provide ecosystem services to people in many different locations. Previous research suggests there may be spatial mismatches between locations where humans use services and the ecosystems that produce them. This occurs with migratory species, between the areas that most support the species' population viability - and hence their long-term ability to provide services - and the locations where species provide the most ecosystem services. This paper presents a conceptual framework for estimating how much a particular location supports the...
Categories: Data, Publication; Types: Citation
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Simulating the magnitude and variability of terrestrial methane sources and sinks poses a challenge to ecosystem models because the biophysical and biogeochemical processes that lead to methane emissions from terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems are, by their nature, episodic and spatially disjunct. As a consequence, model predictions of regional methane emissions based on field campaigns from short eddy covariance towers or static chambers have large uncertainties, because measurements focused on a particular known source of methane emission will be biased compared to regional estimates with regards to magnitude, spatial scale, or frequency of these emissions. Given the relatively large importance of predicting...
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The pattern of eruptions at long-lived volcanic centers provides a window into the co-evolution of crustal magma transport, tectonic stresses, and unsteady magma generation at depth. Mount Mazama in the Oregon Cascades has seen variable activity over the last 400 ky, including the 50 km3 climactic eruption at ca. 7.7 ka that produced Crater Lake caldera. The physical mechanisms responsible for the assembly of silicic magma reservoirs that are the precursors to caldera-forming eruptions are poorly understood. Here we argue that the spatial and temporal distribution of geographically clustered volcanic vents near Mazama reflects the development of a centralized magma chamber that fed the climactic eruption. Time-averaged...
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Yucca Mountain is an arid site proposed for consideration as the United States’ first underground high-level radioactive waste repository. Low rainfall (approximately 170 mm/yr) and a thick unsaturated zone (500–1000 m) are important physical attributes of the site because the quantity of water likely to reach the waste and the paths and rates of movement of the water to the saturated zone under future climates would be major factors in controlling the concentrations and times of arrival of radionuclides at the surrounding accessible environment. The framework for understanding the hydrologic processes that occur at this site and that control how quickly water will penetrate through the unsaturated zone to the water...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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Similar to other species that in recent centuries experienced unregulated human exploitation, sea otters were extirpated throughout large portions of their historic range in the North Pacific. For most of the twentieth century, with cessation of the fur trade and because of concerted efforts at conservation, sea otters recovered much of their historic range and abundance. Late in the twentieth century, increased predation by killer whales in southwest Alaska drove sea otter populations to a few percentage points of their prior abundance, and one of the nation’s largest oil spills in south-central Alaska caused the death of several thousand animals and required more than two decades for recovery. In California, entanglement...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Thiadiamondoids (TDs) are diamond-like compounds with a sulfide bond located within the cage structure. These compounds were suggested as a molecular proxy for the occurrence and extent of thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Compound-specific sulfur-isotope analysis of TDs may create a multi-parameter system, based on molecular and δ34S values that may be sensitive over a wider range of TSR and thermal maturation stages. In this study, we analyzed a suite of 12 Upper Jurassic oil and condensate samples generated from source rocks in the Smackover Formation to perform a systematic study of the sulfur isotope distribution in thiadiamondoids (one and two cages). For comparison we measured the δ34S composition of...
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We monitored sediment flux at 25 plots located at the northern end of the 2007 Milford Flat Fire (Lake Bonneville Basin, west-central Utah) to examine the effectiveness of post-fire rehabilitation treatments in mitigating risks of wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire. Maximum values were recorded during Mar–Jul 2009 when horizontal sediment fluxes measured with BSNE samplers ranged from 16.3 to 1251.0 g m−2 d−1 in unburned plots (n = 8; data represent averages of three sampler heights per plot), 35.2–555.3 g m−2 d−1 in burned plots that were not treated (n = 5), and 21.0–44,010.7 g m−2 d−1 in burned plots that received one or more rehabilitation treatments that disturbed the soil surface (n = 12). Fluxes...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Aeolian Research
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Tidal saline wetlands in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) are dynamic and frequently disturbed systems that provide myriad ecosystem services. For these services to be sustained, dominant macrophytes must continuously recolonize and establish after disturbance. Macrophytes accomplish this regeneration through combinations of vegetative propagation and sexual reproduction, the relative importance of which varies by species. Concurrently, tidal saline wetland systems experience both anthropogenic and natural hydrologic alterations, such as levee construction, sea-level rise, storm impacts, and restoration activities. These hydrologic alterations can affect the success of plant regeneration, leading to large-scale,...
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The oldest compiled U–Pb zircon ages for the Acasta Gneiss Complex in the Northwest Territories of Canada span about 4050–3850 Ma; yet older ca. 4200 Ma xenocrystic U–Pb zircon ages have also been reported for this terrane. The AGC expresses at least 25 km2 of outcrop exposure, but only a small subset of this has been documented in the detail required to investigate a complex history and resolve disputes over emplacement ages. To better understand this history, we combined new ion microprobe235,238U–207,206Pb zircon geochronology with whole-rock and zircon rare earth element compositions ([REE]zirc), Ti-in-zircon thermometry (Tixln) and 147Sm–143Nd geochronology for an individual subdivided ∼60 cm2 slab of Acasta...


map background search result map search result map Post-fire land treatments and wind erosion -- lessons from the Milford Flat Fire, UT, USA Evolution of the conceptual model of unsaturated zone hydrology at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Evolution of the conceptual model of unsaturated zone hydrology at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Post-fire land treatments and wind erosion -- lessons from the Milford Flat Fire, UT, USA