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This map shows the distribution of anomalous tungsten in the two sample fractions, magnetic (M-1) and nonmagnetic (NM-1) gold in the nonmagnetic (NM-1) fraction; these are plotted on a base which includes sample localities, topography, and generalized geology modified from Hedlund (1975a, b). It is part of a series of maps for several metals that accompany this folio. Distributions of the tungsten and gold values are shown on the accompanying histograms.
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The Cuyuna iron-ore district is in central Minnesota in Morrison, Crow Wing, and Aitkin Counties. The length of the district is about 68 miles, extending from near Randall in Morrison County ot a point 11 miles east of the community of Hassmann in Aitkin County, and the maximum know width is about 25 miles near the center of the district. Current mining activity is confined to a much smaller area about 10 miles longs and 3 miles wide near Crosby and Ironton in Crow Wing County. This investigation has been restricted to the active area plus a marginal strip in which much exploratory drilling has been done. The average annual production of iron ore and manganiferous iron ore from the district during 1940-50 was...
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The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of Conservation Elements, Change Agents, and Management Questions developed during Phase I. The overall goal of the REAs being conducted for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change, and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks. The REA also may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Tucked in a grove of thorny mesquite trees, on an ancient coral reef on the south side of the Hawaiian island of Oahu, west of Pearl Harbor, a small unmanned observatory quietly records the Earth’s time-varying magnetic field. The Honolulu Magnetic Observatory is 1 of 14 that the U.S. Geological Survey Geomag­netism Program operates at various locations across the United States and its territories.Data from these observatories, Honolulu, and those operated by institutions in foreign countries, record a variety of magnetic signals related to a wide diversity of physical phenomena in the Earth’s interior and its surrounding outer-space environment. USGS magnetic observatory operations are an integral part of a U.S....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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Ice on rivers and lakes has many important influences on design and construction of structures, operation of shipping, flow and circulation, water quality, and other factors related to the use of the water resources. Human interest in understanding these influences has led to many programs of data collection, research, and investigations for a century or more. The body of literature reporting on these studies includes several thousand items in textbooks, proceedings, journals, and technical reports. By far, the largest part of the studies were in the United States, Canada, and the Soviet Union. For the sake of this bibliography, the literature can be classified as dealing with basic characteristics of ice; freezing...
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The Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore is underlain by unconsolidated lake and glacial deposits which have been divided into three units. Unit 1 is comprised mostly of sand and, in the western part of the National Lakeshore, is capable of yielding more than 500 gallons per minute (32 litres per second) to properly constructed wells. Unit 2, a silt till below unit 1, has little potential as a source of water for public supplies within the National Lakeshore area. Unit 4, a clay till under unit 2, is capable of yielding from 10 to 65 gallons per minute (0.6 to 4 litres per second) throughout the National Lakeshore.Precipitation samples collected at the National Lakeshore had average inorganic ion concentrations ranging...
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Flood-frequency studies for urban areas in several parts of the United States and flood-frequency relations for natural streams of Oklahoma were used to develop a set of flood-frequency equations for urban areas of Oklahoma. Equations arepresented for estimating the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood-peak discharges for basins of 0.5 to 100 mil (1.3 to 260 km2).
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Geologists recognize lavas and ash deposits from about 60 past eruptions in the area around Mammoth Mountain and Devils Postpile, California. This raises the unanswerable question, “When will it erupt again?” An alternative, answerable, and informative question is, “How often has it erupted?”In the Mammoth Lakes Sierra, geologists have mapped in great detail all the lavas and ash deposits produced by those 60 eruptions. They have dated almost all of them by laboratory methods, showing that eruptions have been repetitive and persistent, though not quite regular, over the last quarter-million years. For few volcanoes in the world is the long-term eruptive frequency so well calibrated as in the Mammoth Lakes Sierra.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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Water-quality data for the Red River mainstem and the North Fork Red River basin within Oklahoma, through 1979, were examined for water type and suitability for public water supply and irrigation use. Of 96 stations with available data, 53 stations or 55 percent were considered to have sufficient data for analysis. The classification of water type was based on the relation of the major ions: calcium, magnesium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride to each other within the range of measured specific conductance. The suitability of the water for use as a public supply was based on the concentration distribution of selected constituents. The constituents selected were those with maximum contaminant...
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This report presents the results of an investigation of ground-water resources in that part of the Yampa River basin between the towns of Craig and Steamboat Springs. The location of the study area is shown on the index map. The investigation was begun in 1975 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, Office of the State Engineer.
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The extensive development of oil and natural-gas resources in south Texas during the past 10 years has led to questions regarding possible environmental effects of processes associated with oil and natural-gas production, in particular the process of hydraulic fracturing, on water and other natural resources. Part of the lower San Antonio River watershed intersects an area of oil and natural-gas production from the sedimentary rocks that compose the Eagle Ford Group.The rapid expansion of infrastructure associated with oil and natural-gas production increases potential pathways for inorganic and organic contaminants to enter surface-water systems. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River...
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Four laboratories involved in the routine analysis of wet-deposition samples participated in an interlaboratory comparison program managed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The four participants were: Illinois State Water Survey central analytical laboratory in Champaign, Illinois; U.S. Geological Survey national water-quality laboratories in Atlanta, Georgia, and Denver, Colorado; and Inland Waters Directorate national water-quality laboratory in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. Analyses of interlaboratory samples performed by the four laboratories from October 1983 through December 1984 were compared.Participating laboratories analyzed three types of interlaboratory samples--natural wet deposition, simulated wet deposition,...
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A variety of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) extraction procedures have been investigated for their applicability to samples from aquatic environments. The cold sulfuric-oxalic acid procedure was best suited to samples consisting of water, periphyton, and sediments. Due to cation and fulvic acid interferences, a spike with a known quantity of ATP was necessary to estimate losses when sediments were extracted. Variable colonization densities for periphyton required that several replicates be extracted to characterize acdurately the periphyton community. Extracted samples were stable at room temperature for one to five hours, depending on the ATP concentration, if the pH was below 2. Neutralized samples which were quick...
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Regional relations are defined for estimating the depths of floods having recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 100 years for both natural and urban streams in Oklahoma. Contributing drainage area and the 2-year 24-hour rainfall are the only independent variables required for estimating flood depths for natural streams. For urban streams the percentage of the basin impervious and served by storm sewers is also required. The only limitations are that the stream be unregulated, that the main channels be unimproved, and that the contributing drainage area and the 2-year 24-hour rainfall be in the range of values used to derive the relations. The standard errors of estimate range from 24 percent for the 50- and 100-year...
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The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, (1) quantified the groundwater resources of the Rush Springs aquifer in western Oklahoma by developing a numerical groundwater-flow model, (2) evaluated the effects of estimated equal-proportionate-share (EPS) pumping rates on aquifer storage and streamflow for time periods of 20, 40, and 50 years into the future, (3) assessed the uncertainty in the EPS scenario results, and (4) evaluated the effects of (a) projected groundwater-use rates extended 50 years into the future and (b) sustained hypothetical drought conditions over a 10-year period on stream base flow and groundwater in storage.The Rush Springs...
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The White Butte NE, NW, East, and West quadrangles, were mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey program of classifying Federal lands and to make a systemic study and evaluation of the coal resources. Economic resources in the White Butte quadrangles consist of coal, oil and gas, sodium chloride, limestone, rubble, and sand and gravel
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Coal Map
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Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Pueblo Reservoir are described on the basis of data collected from spring 1985 through fall 1989. Also included are discussions of water quality of the upper Arkansas River Basin and the reservoir as they relate to reservoir operations. Pueblo Reservoir is a multipurpose, main-stem reservoir on the Arkansas River about 6 miles west of Pueblo, Colorado. At the top of its conservation pool, the reservoir is more than 9 miles long and ranges in depth from a few feet at the inflow to about 155 feet at the dam. Pueblo Reservoir derives most of its contents from the Arkansas River, which comprises native and transmountain flow. With respect to water temperature, the...
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A 30.8-mile reach of the Red River of the North receives treated wastewater from plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and streamflows from the Sheyenne River. A one-dimensional, steady-state, stream water-quality model, the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), was calibrated and verified for summer streamflow conditions to simulate some of the biochemical processes that result from discharging treated wastewater into this reach of the river.Data obtained to define the river's transport conditions are measurements of channel geometry, streamflow, traveltime, specific conductance, and temperature. Data obtained to define the river's water-quality conditions are measurements of concentrations...
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Ground water is an important freshwater source for domestic and livestock uses in southeastern Utah because of the arid climate and unavailability of surface water from the San Juan River. The study area includes about 1,200 square miles in the southeastern corner of Utah (fig. 1). Precipitation on mountainous areas north, south, and east of the study area (fig. 2) seeps into the Navajo and overlying aquifers where the sandstones that contain the aquifers are exposed at the surface along mountain flanks. The ground water then moves slowly away from the mountainous areas toward the area of lowest elevation 109°30' in the region, the San Juan River. The ground water reappears at land surface where it discharges as...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet