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More than 70 individual VOCs were identified in the leachate plume of a closed municipal landfill. Concentrations were low when compared with data published for other landfills, and total VOCs accounted for less than 0.1% of the total dissolved organic carbon. The VOC concentrations in the core of the anoxic leachate plume are variable, but in all cases they were found to be near or below detection limits within 200 m of the landfall. In contrast to the VOCs, the distributions of chloride ion, a conservative tracer, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon, indicate little dilution over the same distance. Thus, natural attentuation processes are effectively limiting migration of the VOC plume. The distribution of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Groundwater
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Demonstrating disease impacts on the vital rates of free‐ranging mammalian hosts typically requires intensive, long‐term study. Evidence for chronic pathogens affecting reproduction but not survival is rare, but has the potential for wide‐ranging effects. Accurately quantifying disease‐associated reductions in fecundity is important for advancing theory, generating accurate predictive models, and achieving effective management. We investigated the impacts of brucellosis (Brucella abortus) on elk (Cervus canadensis) productivity using serological data from over 6,000 captures since 1990 in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Over 1,000 of these records included known age and pregnancy status. Using Bayesian multilevel...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecology and Evolution
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Effective monitoring of native bee populations requires accurate estimates of population size and relative abundance among habitats. Current bee survey methods, such as netting or pan trapping, may be adequate for a variety of study objectives but are limited by a failure to account for imperfect detection. Biases due to imperfect detection could result in inaccurate abundance estimates or erroneous insights about the response of bees to different environments. To gauge the potential biases of currently employed survey methods, we compared abundance estimates of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) derived from hierarchical distance sampling models (HDS) to bumblebee counts collected from fixed‐area net surveys (“net counts”)...
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Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the widely used gasoline oxygenate, has been identified as a common ground water contaminant, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) have long been associated with gasoline spills. Because not all instances of ground water contamination by MTBE and BTEX can be attributed to spills or leaking storage tanks, other potential sources need to be considered. In this study, used motor oil was investigated as a potential source of these contaminants. MTBE in oil was measured directly by methanol extraction and gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Water was equilibrated with oil samples and analyzed for MTBE, BTEX, and the oxygenate tert-amyl...
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Documenting the evolving processes associated with habitat restoration and how long it takes to detect avian demographic responses is crucial to evaluate the success of restoration initiatives and to identify ways to improve their effectiveness. The importance of this endeavor prompted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service to evaluate their sun‐to‐shade coffee restoration program in Puerto Rico initiated in 2003. We quantified the responses of 12 resident avian species using estimates of local occupancy and extinction probabilities based on surveys conducted in 2015–2017 at 65 restored farms grouped according to time‐since‐initial‐restoration (TSIR): new (2011–2014),...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Restoration Ecology
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A commercially available electromagnetic flowmeter is attached to a seepage cylinder to create an electromagnetic seepage meter (ESM) for automating measurement of fluxes across the sediment/water interface between ground water and surface water. The ESM is evaluated through its application at two lakes in New England, one where water seeps into the lake and one where water seeps out of the lake. The electromagnetic flowmeter replaces the seepage-meter bag and provides a continuous series of measurements from which temporal seepage processes can be investigated. It provides flow measurements over a range of three orders of magnitude, and contains no protruding components or moving parts. The ESM was used to evaluate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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Reconstruction of continental palaeoclimate and palaeohydrology is currently hampered by limited information about isotopic patterns in the modern hydrologic cycle. To remedy this situation and to provide baseline data for other isotope hydrology studies, more than 4800, depth- and width-integrated, stream samples from 391 selected sites within the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) were analysed for δ18O and δ2H (http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/ofr/ofr00-160/pdf/ofr00-160.pdf). Each site was sampled bimonthly or quarterly for 2·5 to 3 years between 1984 and 1987. The ability of this dataset to serve as a proxy for the isotopic composition of modern precipitation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Pool‐scale growing‐season water‐level reductions (drawdowns) have been implemented on the Upper Mississippi River in an effort to improve fish and wildlife habitat. Aquatic vegetation is a key habitat component, with perennial emergent species, such as Sagittaria latifolia and Sagittaria rigida, especially important. River managers have assumed the need for continuous drawdown during the growing season with limited reflooding and used this guidance in assessing the potential for an ecologically successful drawdown. However, information on the effects of growing‐season flooding episodes on survival and growth of Sagittaria is limited. To assess the flooding tolerance of S. latifoliaand S. rigida, we evaluated multiple...
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AimRefugia play a key role in conserving biodiversity during periods of unfavourable and highly variable regional climate. However, refugial populations are often small and fragmented, which makes their identification difficult. In this study, we investigate whether an area of complex topography in the southern foreland of the Alps could have provided a suitable microclimate to serve as a glacial refugium for temperate trees during the last glacial.LocationThe Euganean Hills in Northern Italy (Veneto).MethodsWe assessed the current microclimatic variability in the ecologically diverse region on a fine scale by recording half‐hourly near‐surface temperatures over a period of 11 months. After comparing our measurements...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Biogeography
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The macronutrients that Arctic herbivores invest in their offspring are derived from endogenous reserves of fat and protein (capital) that females build prior to the period of investment or from foods they consume concurrently with investment (income). The relative contribution from each source can be influenced by temporal and environmental constraints on a female's ability to forage on Arctic breeding areas. Warming temperatures and advancing Arctic phenology may alter those constraints. From 2011–2014, we examined relationships among spring temperature, timing of migration and reproduction, and the sources of nutrients females deposited in eggs for three sympatric species of geese that nested in northern Alaska....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Global Change Biology
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Soils in post‐wildfire environments are often characterized by a low infiltration capacity with a high degree of spatial heterogeneity relative to unburned areas. Debris flows are frequently initiated by run‐off in recently burned steeplands, making it critical to develop and test methods for incorporating spatial variability in infiltration capacity into hydrologic models. We use Monte Carlo simulations of run‐off generation over a soil with a spatially heterogenous saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) to derive an expression for an aerially averaged saturated hydraulic conductivity ( ) that depends on the rainfall rate, the statistical properties of Ks, and the spatial correlation length scale associated with...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Three in-stream experiments were conducted to determine whether sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L., tissue extract (alarm cue) and 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl, a putative predator cue) influenced the distribution of migrating adult sea lamprey. Experiments evaluated sea lamprey movement when an odour was applied to (1) a tributary of a larger stream; and (2) half of a stream channel. Fewer sea lamprey entered the tributary and side of the river scented with sea lamprey tissue extract compared to the control treatment. Sea lamprey did not avoid the tributary and side of the river scented with PEA HCl. A final laboratory experiment found no difference in the avoidance response of sea lamprey to PEA HCl...
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Conservation of animal migratory movements is among the most important issues in wildlife management. To address this need for landscape-scale monitoring of raptor populations, we developed a novel, baited photographic observation network termed the “Appalachian Eagle Monitoring Program” (AEMP). During winter months of 2008–2012, we partnered with professional and citizen scientists in 11 states in the United States to collect approximately 2.5 million images. To our knowledge, this represents the largest such camera-trap effort to date. Analyses of data collected in 2011 and 2012 revealed complex, often species-specific, spatial and temporal patterns in winter raptor movement behavior as well as spatial and temporal...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Wildlife Society Bulletin
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The fate of disinfection byproducts during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is evaluated for aquifers in Southern Nevada. Rapid declines of haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations during ASR, with associated little change in Cl concentration, indicate that HAAs decline primarily by in situ microbial oxidation. Dilution is only a minor contributor to HAA concentration declines during ASR. Trihalomethane (THM) concentrations generally increased during storage of artificial recharge (AR) water and then declined during recovery. The decline of THM concentrations during recovery was primarily from dilution of current season AR water with residual AR water remaining in the aquifer from previous ASR seasons and native ground...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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The suitability of common-offset ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to detect free-phase hydrocarbons in bedrock fractures was evaluated using numerical modeling and physical experiments. The results of one- and two-dimensional numerical modeling at 100 megahertz indicate that GPR reflection amplitudes are relatively insensitive to fracture apertures ranging from 1 to 4 mm. The numerical modeling and physical experiments indicate that differences in the fluids that fill fractures significantly affect the amplitude and the polarity of electromagnetic waves reflected by subhorizontal fractures. Air-filled and hydrocarbon-filled fractures generate low-amplitude reflections that are in-phase with the transmitted pulse....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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Change-in-ratio (CIR) methods are used to estimate parameters for ecological populations subject to differential removals from population subclasses. Subclasses can be defined according to criteria such as sex, age, or size of individuals. Removals are generally in the form of closely monitored sport or commercial harvests. Estimation is based on observed changes in subclass proportions caused by the removals.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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No abstract available.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Gas conversion to liquefied gas (LNG) and transport by LNG tankers is one option for meeting expanding gas consumption and for gas traded internationally. This paper examines the impact of the traditional gas contract provisions of indefinite pricing, market out price ceilings, and take‐or‐pay requirements on the profitability of LNG projects in the context of markets characterized by price and quantity uncertainty. Simulation experiments are used to examine and calibrate the effects of those provisions. The results provide guidance to operators, host countries and purchasers in structuring such contracts. The paper also assesses prospects of future expansion of world LNG capacity.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Natural Resources Forum
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Normally, slug test measurements are limited to the well in which the water level is perturbed. Consequently, it is often difficult to obtain reliable estimates of hydraulic properties, particularly if the aquifer is anisotropic or if there is a wellbore skin. In this investigation, we use partially penetrating stress and observation wells to evaluate specific storage, radial hydraulic conductivity and anisotropy of the aquifer, and the hydraulic conductivity of the borehole skin. The study site is located in the W9 subbasin of the Sleepers River Research Watershed, Vermont. At the site, ∼3 m of saturated till are partially penetrated by a stress well located in the center of the unconfined aquifer and six observation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water