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Conservation planning requires information at a variety of geographic scales, and it is often unclear whether surveys designed for other purposes will provide appropriate information for management at various scales. We evaluated the use of the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) to meet information needs for conservation planning in Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs). The BBS originally was developed to provide regional estimates for states, provinces, physiographic regions, and larger areas. Many analyses have used physiographic regions within states/provinces as strata. We evaluated potential consequences of using BCRs instead of the BBS physiographic regions, testing for spatial differences in sample intensity...
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Aim To determine the best-fit model of species–area relationships for Mediterranean-type plant communities and evaluate how community structure affects these species–area models.Location Data were collected from California shrublands and woodlands and compared with literature reports for other Mediterranean-climate regions.Methods The number of species was recorded from 1, 100 and 1000 m2 nested plots. Best fit to the power model or exponential model was determined by comparing adjusted r2 values from the least squares regression, pattern of residuals, homoscedasticity across scales, and semi-log slopes at 1–100 m2 and 100–1000 m2. Dominance–diversity curves were tested for fit to the lognormal model, MacArthur's...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Biogeography
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The Gulf Coast Joint Venture of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan began contracting private agricultural lands (hereafter mini-refuges) in 1988 to expand existing sanctuaries for northern pintails (Anas acuta) in southwestern Louisiana. Previous research suggested that mini-refuges may prove more attractive to pintails than permanent, open-water pools (pools) on refuges because mini-refuges provide sanctuary and food during the day, whereas pools generally provide only sanctuary (Rave and Cordes 1993). We used radiotelemetry to compare diel use of mini-refuges and pools (Lacassine Pool and Amoco Pool) by female pintails in southwestern Louisiana during winters of 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. We examined variation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Wildlife Society Bulletin
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A one-dimensional numerical model describing tidally varying vertical mixing and settling was used to interpret sediment concentrations and vertical fluxes observed in the shoals of South San Francisco Bay by two acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) at elevations of 0.36 m and 0.72 m above bed. Measured sediment concentrations changed by up to 100 g m−3 over the semidiurnal tidal cycle. These dynamics were dominated by local resuspension and settling. Multiple particle class models suggested the existence of a class with fast settling velocities (ws of 9.0 × 10−4 m s−1 in spring and 5.8 × 10−4 m s−1 in fall) and a slowly settling particle fraction (ws of <1 × 10−7 m s−1 in spring and 1.4 × 10−5 m s−1 in fall). Modeled...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Limnology and Oceanography
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The 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Great East Japan earthquake generated significant long-duration shaking that propagated hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter and affected urban areas throughout much of Honshu. Recorded responses of a tall building at 770 km from the epicenter of the mainshock and other related or unrelated events show how structures sensitive to long-period motions can be affected by distant sources. Even when the largest peak input motions to the building is about 3% g, the strong-shaking duration was about 140 s. The 300- to 1000-s prolonged responses of the building are primarily due to a combination of site resonance (e.g. structural fundamental frequency ~0.15 Hz and site frequency ~0.13–0.17 Hz)...
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Timing can be critical for many life history events of organisms. Consequently, the timing of management activities may affect individuals and populations in numerous and unforeseen ways. Translocations of organisms are used to restore or expand populations but the timing of translocations is largely unexplored as a factor influencing population success. We hypothesized that the process of translocation negatively influences reproductive rates of individuals that are moved just before their birthing season and, therefore, the timing of releases could influence translocation success. Prior to reintroducing fishers (Pekania pennanti) into northern California and onto the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, we predicted...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecosphere
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Fish consumption advisories are used to inform citizens in the United States about noncommercial game fish with hazardous levels of methylmercury (MeHg). The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggests issuing a fish consumption advisory when concentrations of MeHg in fish exceed a human health screening value of 300 ng/g. However, states have authority to develop their own systems for issuing fish consumption advisories for MeHg. Five states in the south central United States (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Texas) issue advisories for the general human population when concentrations of MeHg exceed 700 ng/g to 1000 ng/g. The objective of the present study was to estimate the increase in...
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Demographic models for the shovelnose (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid (S. albus) sturgeons in the Lower Missouri River were developed to conduct sensitivity analyses for both populations. Potential effects of increased fishing mortality on the shovelnose sturgeon were also evaluated. Populations of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon were most sensitive to age-0 mortality rates as well as mortality rates of juveniles and young adults. Overall, fecundity was a less sensitive parameter. However, increased fecundity effectively balanced higher mortality among sensitive age classes in both populations. Management that increases population-level fecundity and improves survival of age-0, juveniles, and young adults...
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Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) disturb the substratum during nest construction and alter the physical habitat, potentially affecting other stream organisms. We quantified differences in depth, velocity, fine-sediment coverage, embeddedness, intragravel permeability and benthic invertebrate assemblages (density and diversity) among nest mounds, nest pits and undisturbed reference locations over a 4-month period after June spawning. In 2010 and 2011, immediate and persistent effects of nest construction were assessed in summer (July) and in autumn (late September to early October), respectively. Randomly selected nests were sampled annually (25 each in summer and autumn). Nest construction increased stream-bed...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Freshwater Biology
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Point counts are commonly used to assess changes in bird abundance, including analytical approaches such as distance sampling that estimate density. Point-count methods have come under increasing scrutiny because effects of detection probability and field error are difficult to quantify. For seven forest songbirds, we compared fixed-radii counts (50 m and 100 m) and density estimates obtained from distance sampling to known numbers of birds determined by territory mapping. We applied point-count analytic approaches to a typical forest management question and compared results to those obtained by territory mapping. We used a before–after control impact (BACI) analysis with a data set collected across seven study...
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To successfully preserve or manage a species, we must understand how the community of which it is a part functions. We must know how environmental alterations affect the fitness not only of the species of interest, but also that of its competitors, predators, and prey; and we must know the form and intensity of the pertinent inter-species interactions. Interaction Assessment (INTASS) is a non-manipulative approach to constructing quantitative expressions for fitness, written as functions of measured environmental variables including local population densities of conspecifics and other interacting species. We applied this approach to, and evaluated its consistency from, data on the European land snail (Cepaea nemoralis),...
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The Penobscot River drains the largest watershed in Maine and once provided spawning and rearing habitats to 11 species of diadromous fishes. The construction of dams blocked migrations of these fishes and likely changed the structure and function of fish assemblages throughout the river. The proposed removal of two main-stem dams, improved upstream fish passage at a third dam, and construction of a fish bypass on a dam obstructing a major tributary is anticipated to increase passage of and improve habitat connectivity for both diadromous and resident fishes. We captured 61 837 fish of 35 species in the Penobscot River and major tributaries, through 114 km of boat electrofishing. Patterns of fish assemblage structure...
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Restoration of riparian forest productivity lost as a consequence of flow regulation is a common management goal in dryland riverine ecosystems. In the northern hemisphere, dryland river floodplain trees often include one or another species of Populus, which are fast-growing, nutrient-demanding trees. Because the trees are phreatophytic in drylands, and have water needs met in whole or in part by a shallow water table, their productivity may be limited by nitrogen (N) availability, which commonly limits primary productivity in mesic environments. We added 20 g N m−2 in a 2-m radius around the base of mature Populus fremontii along each of a regulated and free-flowing river in semiarid northwest Colorado, USA (total...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Restoration Ecology
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1. Acoustic surveys have become a common survey method for bats and other vocal taxa. Previous work shows that bat echolocation may be misidentified, but common analytic methods, such as occupancy models, assume that misidentifications do not occur. Unless rare, such misidentifications could lead to incorrect inferences with significant management implications. 2. We fit a false-positive occupancy model to data from paired bat detector and mist-net surveys to estimate probability of presence when survey data may include false positives. We compared estimated occupancy and detection rates to those obtained from a standard occupancy model. We also derived a formula to estimate the probability that bats were present...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Applied Ecology
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Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) were historically abundant within tributary streams of Yellowstone Lake within Yellowstone National Park and were a highly digestible source of energy and protein for Yellowstone’s grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (U. americanus). The cutthroat trout population has subsequently declined since the introduction of non-native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and in response to effects of drought and whirling disease (Myxobolus cerebralis). The trout population, duration of spawning runs, and indices of bear use of spawning streams had declined in some regions of the lake by 1997–2000. We initiated a 3-year study in 2007 to assess whether numbers...
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Models of dual‐domain mass transfer (DDMT) are used to explain anomalous aquifer transport behavior such as the slow release of contamination and solute tracer tailing. Traditional tracer experiments to characterize DDMT are performed at the flow path scale (meters), which inherently incorporates heterogeneous exchange processes; hence, estimated “effective” parameters are sensitive to experimental design (i.e., duration and injection velocity). Recently, electrical geophysical methods have been used to aid in the inference of DDMT parameters because, unlike traditional fluid sampling, electrical methods can directly sense less‐mobile solute dynamics and can target specific points along subsurface flow paths. Here...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has used spring aerial surveys to estimate numbers of migrating sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging in the Platte River Valley of Nebraska, USA. Resulting estimates index the abundance of the midcontinent sandhill crane population and inform harvest management decisions. However, annual changes in the index have exceeded biologically plausible changes in population size (>50% of surveys between 1982 and 2013 indicate >±20% change), raising questions about nuisance variation due to factors such as migration chronology. We used locations of cranes marked with very-high-frequency transmitters to estimate migration chronology (i.e., proportions of cranes present within the Platte...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Wildlife Society Bulletin
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In jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, the inner ears have three semicircular canals arranged orthogonally in the three Cartesian planes: one horizontal (lateral) and two vertical canals. They function as detectors for angular acceleration in their respective planes. Living jawless craniates, cyclostomes (hagfish and lamprey) and their fossil records seemingly lack a lateral horizontal canal. The jawless vertebrate hagfish inner ear is described as a torus or doughnut, having one vertical canal, and the jawless vertebrate lamprey having two. These observations on the anatomy of the cyclostome (jawless vertebrate) inner ear have been unchallenged for over a century, and the question of how these jawless vertebrates...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Anatomy
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Conservation decision-makers face a trade-off between spending limited funds on direct management action, or gaining new information in an attempt to improve management performance in the future. Value-of-information analysis can help to resolve this trade-off by evaluating how much management performance could improve if new information was gained. Value-of-information analysis has been used extensively in other disciplines, but there are only a few examples where it has informed conservation planning, none of which have used it to evaluate the financial value of gaining new information. We address this gap by applying value-of-information analysis to the management of a declining koala Phascolarctos cinereuspopulation....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Applied Ecology


map background search result map search result map Can nitrogen fertilization aid restoration of mature tree productivity in degraded dryland riverine ecosystems? Can nitrogen fertilization aid restoration of mature tree productivity in degraded dryland riverine ecosystems?