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Summary (from NESP Methods Brief): This methods brief focuses on wild pollination, which is beneficial to the production of many pollinator-dependent crops. This analysis maps the supply of potential wild pollinator habitat and the demand for pollination from agriculture. Regional priority areas for conservation and restoration of wild pollinator habitat are identified based on several metrics derived from these supply and demand maps. Spatial datasets for these priority areas and associated metrics are available on ScienceBase.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Abstract (from Geophysical Research Letters): Lateral transport of organic carbon (OC) to the coastal ocean is an important component of the global carbon cycle because rivers transport, mineralize, and bury significant amounts of OC. Glaciers drive water and sediment export from many high‐elevation and high‐latitude ecosystems, yet their role in watershed OC balances is poorly understood, particularly with regard to particulate OC. Here, we evaluate seasonal water, sediment, and comprehensive OC budgets, including both dissolved and particulate forms, for three watersheds in southeast Alaska that vary in glacier coverage. We show that glacier loss will shift the dominant size fraction of riverine OC from particulate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Rangelands and pastures include grasslands, savannas, shrublands, and woodlands and are often maintained to support grazing animals. Rangelands and pastures cover more than one-third of the land area in the USA and a similar extent globally. The ecosystem goods and services associated with rangeland and pastureland include critical wildlife habitat, forage for livestock, amenities related to water conservation, sustainable soil functions, and soil stabilization and support a diversity of biota and livelihoods. This paper provides a framework for development of a socio-ecological system (SES)–oriented set of indicators for rangeland and pasture systems to support evaluation of impacts of climate and land use changes....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Accurate maps of the wildland–urban interface (WUI) are critical for the development of effective land management policies, conducting risk assessments, and the mitigation of wildfire risk. Most WUI maps identify areas at risk from wildfire by overlaying coarse-scale housing data with land cover or vegetation data. However, it is unclear how well the current WUI mapping methods capture the patterns of building loss. We quantified the building loss in WUI disasters, and then compared how well census-based and point-based WUI maps captured the building loss. We examined the building loss in both WUI and non-WUI land-use types, and in relation to the core components of the United States Federal Register WUI definition:...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Beaver-related restoration is a process-based strategy that seeks to address wide-ranging ecological objectives by reestablishing dam building in degraded stream systems. Although the beaver-related restoration has broad appeal, especially in water-limited systems, its effectiveness is not yet well documented. In this article, we present a process-expectation framework that links beaver-related restoration tactics to commonly expected outcomes by identifying the set of process pathways that must occur to achieve those expected outcomes. We explore the contingency implicit within this framework using social and biophysical data from project and research sites. This analysis reveals that outcomes are often predicated...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Abstract (from Diversity and Distributions): Populations of cold‐adapted species at the trailing edges of geographic ranges are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change from the combination of exposure to warm temperatures and high sensitivity to heat. Many of these species are predicted to decline under future climate scenarios, but they could persist if they can adapt to warming climates either physiologically or behaviourally. We aim to understand local variation in contemporary habitat use and use this information to identify signs of adaptive capacity. We focus on moose (Alces alces), a charismatic species of conservation and public interest.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Summary (from NESP Methods Brief Series): This methods brief focuses on recreational birding, which is a popular activity in the United States. This analysis maps the location of recreational birding activity in the southeastern U.S. Regional priorities for conservation of birding areas are identified based on the total amount of birding activity and the proportion of birding activity that takes place on unprotected land. Spatial datasets for these priority areas and associated metrics are available on ScienceBase.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Abstract (from MDPI ) Sleeper species are innocuous native or naturalized species that exhibit invasive characteristics and become pests in response to environmental change. Climate warming is expected to increase arthropod damage in forests, in part, by transforming innocuous herbivores into severe pests: awakening sleeper species. Urban areas are warmer than natural areas due to the urban heat island effect and so the trees and pests in cities already experience temperatures predicted to occur in 50–100 years. We posit that arthropod species that become pests of urban trees are those that benefit from warming and thus should be monitored as potential sleeper species in forests. We illustrate this with two case...
Abstract (from Forestry): Higher temperatures and drought are key aspects of global change with the potential to alter the distribution and severity of many arthropod pests in forest systems. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) infest many tree species and are among the most important pests of trees in urban and rural forests, plantations and other forest systems. Infestations of native or exotic scale insects can kill or sicken trees with economic and ecosystem-wide consequences. Warming can have direct effects on the life history, fitness and population dynamics of many scale insect species by increasing development rate, survival or fecundity. These direct benefits can increase the geographic distribution of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Abstract (from Ecology of Freshwater Fish): The introduction of exotic species has the potential to cause resource competition with native species and may lead to competitive exclusion when resources are limiting. On the other hand, information is lacking to predict under what alternate trophic conditions coexistence may occur. Comparing diets of native yellow perch Perca flavescens and nonindigenous white perch Morone americana, we examined variation in resource partitioning and body condition across a prominent longitudinal nutrient gradient in Lake Erie (north‐eastern United States, Canada). As measured with Analysis of Similarity and Schoener's index, diet similarity declined monotonically from west to east...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
The Northern Great Plains (NGP) region plays a very important role in providing water and land resources and other critical ecosystem services to support rural livelihoods. Semi-arid conditions and the tight coupling of livelihood enterprises with ecosystem services increases sensitivity to climate change. The changing climate and social-economic situations across the NGP have further challenged current management practices. Recent climate stresses has indicated that changing seasonality and extreme events (e.g., droughts, floods, ice storms) are impacting ecosystem services and increasing vulnerability to rural livelihoods. In particular, the emergence of rapid on-set of drought has been problematic to resource...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Summary (from NESP Methods Brief Series): This methods brief focuses on access to recreational open space, which is a key component of mental health and wellbeing. This analysis maps the supply of publicly accessible open spaces relative to where people live. Regional priority areas for the creation of new open space through conservation are identified based on a metric representing the number of people who would benefit from new recreational open space if it were created in that area. Spatial datasets for these priority areas and associated metrics are available on ScienceBase.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
We review over twenty years of publications on Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) applications in arid/semi-arid irrigated agricultural watersheds. Our review reveals strict dominance of the model's use for better understanding water quantity aspects of water management. While this is to be expected given the reality of water scarcity and associated challenges for agricultural production systems in arid/semi-arid regions, the capabilities of SWAT to model water quality have been underutilized. The main modeling challenges are lack of observational data, poor data quality, concerns about simulation accuracy, and technical limitations of the model despite numerous advancements in the last two decades. To deal with...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Abstract (from International Journal of Climatology): The weather research and forecasting (WRF) model and a combination of the regional spectral model (RSM) and the Japanese Meteorological Agency Non‐Hydrostatic Model (NHM) were used to dynamically downscale selected CMIP5 global climate models to provide 2‐km projections with hourly model output for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Two 20‐year time slices were downscaled for historical (1986–2005) and future (2041–2060) periods following RCP8.5. Projected changes to mean and extreme temperature and precipitation were quantified for Holdridge life zones within Puerto Rico and for the U.S. Virgin Islands. The evaluation reveals a persistent cold bias for...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation