Skip to main content
Advanced Search

Filters: partyWithName: Reynolds, Richard L (X)

22 results (153ms)   

View Results as: JSON ATOM CSV
Wind erosion and associated dust emissions play a fundamental role in many ecological processes and provide important biogeochemical connectivity at scales ranging from individual plants up to the entire globe. Yet, most ecological studies do not explicitly consider dust-driven processes, perhaps because most relevant research on aeolian (wind-driven) processes has been presented in a geosciences rather than an ecological context. To bridge this disciplinary gap, we provide a general overview of the ecological importance of dust, examine complex interactions between wind erosion and ecosystem dynamics from the scale of plants and surrounding space to regional and global scales, and highlight specific examples of...
The recognition and characterization of aeolian dust in soil contribute to a better understanding of landscape and ecosystem dynamics of drylands. Results of this study show that recently deposited dust, sampled in isolated, mostly high-ground settings, is chemically and mineralogically similar on varied geologic substrates over a large area (15 000 km2) in the Mojave Desert. The silt-plus-clay fraction (fines) on these isolated surfaces is closely alike in magnetic-mineral composition, in contrast to greatly dissimilar magnetic compositions of rock surfaces of vastly different lithologies, on which the fines have accumulated. The fines, thus, are predominantly deposited dust. The amounts of potential nutrients...
thumbnail
Magnetic properties of shallow (<10-cm depth), fine-grained surficial sediments contrast greatly with those of immediately underlying bedrock across much of the dry American Southwest. At 26 study sites in fine-grained (<63 ?m) surficial sediments isolated from alluvial inputs, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM; mean of 67 samples = 6.72 � 10?3 Am2 kg?1) is more than two orders of magnitude greater than that for underlying Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. This contrast is mainly caused by the presence of silt-size, titanium-bearing magnetite particles in the surficial deposits and their absence in bedrock. Because of their size, composition, and isolated location, the magnetite particles represent...
Aeolian dust (windblown silt and clay) is an important component in arid-land ecosystems because it may contribute to soil formation and furnish essential nutrients. Few geologic surfaces, however, have been characterized with respect to dust-accumulation history and resultant nutrient enrichment. We have developed a combination of methods to identify the presence of aeolian dust in arid regions and to evaluate the roles of this dust in ecosystem processes. Unconsolidated sandy sediment on isolated surfaces in the Canyonlands region of the Colorado Plateau differs greatly in mineralogical and chemical composition from associated bedrock, mainly aeolian sandstone. Detrital magnetite in the surficial deposits produces...
thumbnail
We investigated several forms of phosphorus (P) in dryland soils to examine the chemical and textural controls on P stabilization on a diverse set of substrates. We examined three P fractions including labile, moderately labile, and occluded as determined by a modified Hedley fractionation technique. The P fractions were compared to texture measurements and total elemental concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Labile P related to the absence of materials involved in P sorption. Moderately labile P was most strongly associated with high total Al & Fe content that we interpret to represent oxides and 1:1 clay minerals. The occluded P fraction was strongly associated...
thumbnail
Abstract Decomposition is central to understanding ecosystem carbon exchange and nutrient-release processes. Unlike mesic ecosystems, which have been extensively studied, xeric landscapes have received little attention; as a result, abiotic soil-respiration regulatory processes are poorly understood in xeric environments. To provide a more complete and quantitative understanding about how abiotic factors influence soil respiration in xeric ecosystems, we conducted soil- respiration and decomposition-cloth measurements in the cold desert of southeast Utah. Our study evaluated when and to what extent soil texture, moisture, temperature, organic carbon, and nitrogen influence soil respiration and examined whether...
The cold deserts of the Colorado Plateau contain numerous geologically and geochemically distinct sedimentary bedrock types. In the area near Canyonlands National Park in Southeastern Utah, geochemical variation in geologic substrates is related to the depositional environment with higher concentrations of Fe, Al, P, K, and Mg in sediments deposited in alluvial or marine environments and lower concentrations in bedrock derived from eolian sand dunes. Availability of soil nutrients to vegetation is also controlled by the formation of secondary minerals, particularly for P and Ca availability, which, in some geologic settings, appears closely related to variation of CaCO3 and Ca-phosphates in soils. However, the results...
The interactions between playa hydrology and playa-surface sediments are important factors that control the type and amount of dust emitted from playas as a result of wind erosion. The production of evaporite minerals during evaporative loss of near-surface ground water results in both the creation and maintenance of several centimeters or more of loose sediment on and near the surfaces of wet playas. Observations that characterize the texture, mineralogic composition and hardness of playa – surfaces at Franklin Lake, Soda Lake and West Cronese Lake playas in the Mojave Desert (California), along with imaging of dust emission using automated digital photography, indicate that these kinds of surface sediment are...
Diatom assemblages in sediments from two subalpine lakes in the Uinta Mountains, Utah, show asynchronous changes that are related to both anthropogenic and natural inputs of dust. These lakes are downwind of sources of atmospheric inputs originating from mining, industrial, urban, agricultural and natural sources that are distributed within tens to hundreds of kilometers west and south of the Uinta Mountains. Sediment cores were retrieved from Marshall and Hidden lakes to determine the impacts of atmospheric pollution, especially metals. Paleolimnological techniques, including elemental analyses and 210Pb and 239+240Pu dating, indicate that both lakes began receiving eolian inputs from anthropogenic sources in the...
Relatively few studies have examined the ecological and biogeochemical effects of livestock grazing in southeastern Utah. In this study, we evaluated how grazing has affected soil organic carbon and nitrogen to a depth of 50 cm in grasslands located in relict and actively-grazed sites in the Canyonlands physiographic section of the Colorado Plateau. We also evaluated differences in plant ground cover and the spatial distribution of soil resources. Results show that areas used by domestic livestock have 20% less plant cover and 100% less soil organic carbon and nitrogen compared to relict sites browsed by native ungulates. In actively grazed sites, domestic livestock grazing also appears to lead to clustered, rather...
The southern Great Plains region of western Texas generally experiences the greatest annual prevalence of blowing dust of any region in North America. From the ?Dust Bowl? through the present, fugitive dust has been a major environmental management issue in this region. Dust generated in this area has settled out thousands of kilometers from its source. We have located and collected several samples of settled dust from sites in the southern Great Plains of Texas, including materials apparently deposited in the first half of the 20th century, and present-day samples from dust traps and individual dust storms. Some particle-size, mineralogical and chemical measurements have been performed on these materials. The data...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
thumbnail
In a semi-arid, upland setting on the Colorado Plateau that is underlain by nutrient-poor Paleozoic eolian sandstone, alternating episodes of dune activity and soil formation during the late Pleistocene and Holocene have produced dominantly sandy deposits that support grass and shrub communities. These deposits also contain eolian dust, especially in paleosols. Eolian dust in these deposits is indicated by several mineralogic and chemical disparities with local bedrock, but it is most readily shown by the abundance of titaniferous magnetite in the sandy deposits that is absent in local bedrock. Magnetite and some potential plant nutrients (especially, P, K, Na, Mn, and Zn) covary positively with depth (3?4 m) in...
thumbnail
Mineral aerosols from dust are an important influence on climate and on marine and terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. These aerosols are generated from wind erosion of surface soils. The amount of dust emission can therefore be affected by human activities that alter surface sediments. However, changes in regional- and global-scale dust fluxes following the rapid expansion of human populations and settlements over the past two centuries are not well understood. Here we determine the accumulation rates and geochemical properties of alpine lake sediments from the western interior United States for the past 5,000 years. We find that dust load levels increased by 500% above the late Holocene average following the increased...
A number of studies have shown that dust delivers essential nutrients that sustain terrestrial productivity over millennia. Dust, however, contains a range of elements ranging from base cations, N and P, to heavy metals. Some of these elements will stimulate primary productivity over the time scale of soil development while others, such as metals, could inhibit biological activity. As dust accumulates, it also influences water flux and availability by altering soil texture. We are examining the ecological impacts of dust accumulation in Canyonlands National Park in Utah. Using magnetic susceptibility as a proxy for far-traveled dust, we have established transects in sandy surficial deposits (50-90% sand) in which...
Geomorphologists have long recognized that eolian sand transport pathways extend over long distances in desert regions. Along such pathways, sediment transport by wind can surmount topographic obstacles and cross major drainages. Recent studies have suggested that three distinct eolian sand transport pathways exist (or once existed) in the Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the southwestern United States. One hypothesized pathway is eolian sand transport from the eastern Mojave Desert of California into western Arizona, near Parker, and would require sand movement across what must have been at least a seasonally dry Colorado River valley. We tested this hypothesis by mineralogical, geochemical and magnetic analyses...
In drylands of southeastern Utah, USA, the invasive exotic grass Bromus tectorum L. occurs in distinct spatial patterns suggesting soil control of ecosystem susceptibility to invasion. To improve our understanding of these patterns, we examined performance of B. tectorum in relation to additions of water, KCl, MgO, and CaO at seventeen 1600 m2 sites distributed across a calcareous soil gradient in Canyonlands National Park. Water additions resulted in a 57% increase in B. tectorum establishment. Fall establishment was significantly correlated with silt and clay content in wet plots but not in dry plots, suggesting that texture effects on B. tectorum establishment patterns may be greater in wet years than in dry...
The recognition and characterization of aeolian dust in soil contribute to a better understanding of landscape and ecosystem dynamics of drylands. Results of this study show that recently deposited dust, sampled in isolated, mostly high-ground settings, is chemically and mineralogically similar on varied geologic substrates over a large area (15 000 km2) in the Mojave Desert. The silt-plus-clay fraction (fines) on these isolated surfaces is closely alike in magnetic-mineral composition, in contrast to greatly dissimilar magnetic compositions of rock surfaces of vastly different lithologies, on which the fines have accumulated. The fines, thus, are predominantly deposited dust. The amounts of potential nutrients...
Sparsely vegetated drylands are an important source for dust emission, but little is known in detail about dust generation in response to timing of precipitation and the consequent effects on soil and vegetation dynamics in these settings. This deficiency is especially acute at intermediate landscape scale, a few tens of meters to a several hundred meters. It is essential to consider dust emission at this scale, because it links dust generation at scales of grains and wind tunnels with regional-scale dust examined using remotely sensed data from satellites. Three sites of slightly different geomorphic settings in the vicinity of Soda (dry) Lake were instrumented (in 1999) with meteorological and sediment transport...
thumbnail
Large sediment fluxes can have significant impacts on ecosystems. We measured incoming and outgoing sediment across a gradient of soil disturbance (livestock grazing, plowing) and annual plant invasion for 9 years. Our sites included two currently ungrazed sites: one never grazed by livestock and dominated by perennial grasses/well-developed biocrusts and one not grazed since 1974 and dominated by annual weeds with little biocrusts. We used two currently grazed sites: one dominated by annual weeds and the other dominated by perennial plants, both with little biocrusts. Precipitation was highly variable, with years of average, above-average, and extremely low precipitation. During years with average and above-average...
The interactions between playa hydrology and playa-surface sediments are important factors that control the type and amount of dust emitted from playas as a result of wind erosion. The production of evaporite minerals during evaporative loss of near-surface ground water results in both the creation and maintenance of several centimeters or more of loose sediment on and near the surfaces of wet playas. Observations that characterize the texture, mineralogic composition and hardness of playa ? surfaces at Franklin Lake, Soda Lake and West Cronese Lake playas in the Mojave Desert (California), along with imaging of dust emission using automated digital photography, indicate that these kinds of surface sediment are...


map background search result map search result map Increasing eolian dust deposition in the western United States linked to human activity Late Quaternary eolian dust in surficial deposits of a Colorado Plateau grassland: Controls on distribution and ecologic effects Soil Respiration in the Cold Desert Environment of the Colorado Plateau (USA): Abiotic Regulators and Thresholds Sediment losses and gains across a gradient of livestock grazing and plant invasion in a cool, semi-arid grassland, Colorado Plateau, USA Chemical and textural controls on phosphorus mobility in drylands of southeastern Utah Atmospheric mineral dust in dryland ecosystems: Applications of environmental magnetism Late Quaternary eolian dust in surficial deposits of a Colorado Plateau grassland: Controls on distribution and ecologic effects Soil Respiration in the Cold Desert Environment of the Colorado Plateau (USA): Abiotic Regulators and Thresholds Sediment losses and gains across a gradient of livestock grazing and plant invasion in a cool, semi-arid grassland, Colorado Plateau, USA Chemical and textural controls on phosphorus mobility in drylands of southeastern Utah Increasing eolian dust deposition in the western United States linked to human activity Atmospheric mineral dust in dryland ecosystems: Applications of environmental magnetism