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Terrestrial carbon sequestration potential is widely considered as a realistic option for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. However, this potential may be threatened by global changes including climate, land use, and management changes such as increased corn stover harvesting for rising production of cellulosic biofuel. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) at regional or global scale. This study simulated the corn production and spatiotemporal changes of SOC in the U.S. Temperate Prairies, which covers over one-third of the U.S. corn acreage, using a biogeochemical model with multiple climate and land-use change projections. The corn production (either grain yield...
Information on future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change is needed to analyze the impact of LULC change on ecological processes. The U.S. Geological Survey has produced spatially explicit, thematically detailed LULC projections for the conterminous United States. Four qualitative and quantitative scenarios of LULC change were developed, with characteristics consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). The four quantified scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2) served as input to the forecasting scenarios of land-use change (FORE-SCE) model. Four spatially explicit data sets consistent with scenario storylines were produced for the conterminous United...
Cultivated lands in the U.S. Midwest have been affected by soil erosion, causing soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution in the landscape and other environmental and agricultural problems. The importance of SOC redistribution on soil productivity and crop yield, however, is still uncertain. In this study, we used a model framework, which includes the Unit Stream Power-based Erosion Deposition (USPED) and the Tillage Erosion Prediction (TEP) models, to understand the soil and SOC redistribution caused by water and tillage erosion in two agricultural fields in the U.S. Midwest. This model framework was evaluated for different digital elevation model (DEM) spatial resolutions (10-m, 24-m, 30-m, and 56-m) and topographic...
Riverine exports of organic and inorganic carbon (OC, IC) to oceans are intricately linked to processes occurring on land. Across high latitudes, thawing permafrost, alteration of hydrologic flow paths, and changes in vegetation may all affect this flux, with subsequent implications for regional and global carbon (C) budgets. Using a unique, multi-decadal dataset of continuous discharge coupled with water chemistry measurements for the Mackenzie River, we show major increases in dissolved OC (DOC) and IC (as alkalinity) fluxes since the early 1970s, for a watershed that covers 1.8 M km2 of northwestern Canada, and provides substantial inputs of freshwater and biogeochemical constituents to the Arctic Ocean. Over...
Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage plays a major role in the global carbon cycle and is affected by many factors including land use/management changes (e.g., biofuel production-oriented changes). However, the contributions of various factors to SOC changes are not well understood and quantified. This study was designed to investigate the impacts of changing farming practices, initial SOC levels, and biological enhancement of grain production on SOC dynamics and to attribute the relative contributions of major driving forces (CO2 enrichment and farming practices) using a fractional factorial modeling design. The case study at a crop site in Iowa in the United States demonstrated that the traditional corn-soybean (CS)...
Spatially-explicit state-and-transition simulation models of land use and land cover (LULC) increase our ability to assess regional landscape characteristics and associated carbon dynamics across multiple scenarios. By characterizing appropriate spatial attributes such as forest age and land-use distribution, a state-and-transition model can more effectively simulate the pattern and spread of LULC changes. This manuscript describes the methods and input parameters of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS), a customized state-and-transition simulation model utilized to assess the relative impacts of LULC on carbon stocks for the conterminous U.S. The methods and input parameters are spatially explicit...
Shifts in plant community structure in shrub and grass-dominated ecosystems are occurring over large land areas in the western US. It is not clear what effect this vegetative change will have on rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling, and thus long-term ecosystem productivity. To study the effect of different plant species on the decomposability of soil organic substrates and rates of C- and N-cycling, we conducted laboratory incubations of soils from a 15-yr-old experimental plot where big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum [Fisch.] Schult.) plants had been planted in a grid pattern. Soil samples collected from beneath crested wheatgrass had significantly greater total...
The population of endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus in the middle Green River (upper Colorado River basin) has declined during the last 40 years. The apparent cause for this decline is a lack of successful recruitment. This study used radiotelemetry to evaluate the ability of hatchery-reared razorback suckers to locate spawning areas where wild fish congregate during the ascending hydrographic limb of the snowmelt runoff. Hatchery-reared razorback suckers appeared to show similar reproductive behavior to wild fish. Both wild and hatchery-reared fish were found near the middle Green River spawning area between 1 and 25 May 2000. Hatchery fish occupied the same areas on the spawning site as wild fish,...
Cylindropuntia xviridiflora (Cactaceae) is a rare plant endemic to Santa Fe County, New Mexico. It is currently assumed to be a hybrid of two more-common species, C. imbricata and C. whipplei. I conducted botanical surveys in key areas of Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona, and Santa Fe County, New Mexico, with the aim to assess possible C. �viridiflora occurrence. During these surveys I found and described three novel populations of what appeared to be C. �viridiflora in Canyon de Chelly. In this paper, I address the taxonomic relationships among these novel populations, populations of C. �viridiflora documented from Santa Fe County, and their putative parental taxa. To do so, I collected morphometric...
Upheaval Dome, in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, USA, is a unique structure on the Colorado Plateau. It has earlier been interpreted as an impact structure or as a pinched-off salt diapir. Some subrounded quartzose fragments were found in a ring depression near the eastern margin of the structure and, based on vesicularity and apparent flow structure, the fragments were interpreted by early researchers as "impactites." Our petrographic studies show no indication of a high-temperature history and are in agreement with a slow, low-temperature formation of the quartz nodules. Compositionally, the lag deposit samples are almost pure SiO2. They show no chemical similarity to any of the possible target rocks (e.g.,...
Estimates of the age and growth of roundtail chub Gila robusta were made by analyzing thin cross sections of sagittal otoliths from 280 specimens collected in the upper Verde River, Arizona, from January 1997 to December 1999. Marginal increment analysis indicated that a single annulus completed formation between January and May. The use of otoliths to age roundtail chub was further validated using otoliths of known-age, hatchery-reared fish for which (upon examination) the number of annuli agreed 100% of the time with the true age of the fish. In addition, daily increments were observed on sagittal otoliths of age-0 roundtail chub and, when counted, agreed with the true age of fish 70% of the time; daily ring counts...
The recognition and characterization of aeolian dust in soil contribute to a better understanding of landscape and ecosystem dynamics of drylands. Results of this study show that recently deposited dust, sampled in isolated, mostly high-ground settings, is chemically and mineralogically similar on varied geologic substrates over a large area (15 000 km2) in the Mojave Desert. The silt-plus-clay fraction (fines) on these isolated surfaces is closely alike in magnetic-mineral composition, in contrast to greatly dissimilar magnetic compositions of rock surfaces of vastly different lithologies, on which the fines have accumulated. The fines, thus, are predominantly deposited dust. The amounts of potential nutrients...
Fire is known to structure tree populations, but the role of broad-scale climate variability is less clear. For example, the influence of climatic ?teleconnections? (the relationship between oceanic?atmospheric fluctuations and anomalous weather patterns across broad scales) on forest age structure is relatively unexplored. We sampled semiarid pi�on?juniper (Pinus edulis?Juniperus osteosperma) woodlands in western Colorado, USA, to test the hypothesis that woodland age structures are shaped by climate, including links to oceanic?atmospheric fluctuations, and by past fires and livestock grazing. Low-severity surface fire was lacking, as fire scars were absent, and did not influence woodland densities, but stand-replacing...
Contrary to the reports of several authors, Acomus generosus, a sucker of the subgenus Pantosteus of Catostomus, may have been collected in Big Cottonwood Creek or Little Cottonwood Creek, Salt Lake County, Utah, and possibly in Provo River, Utah County, Utah. Multiple Pantosteus species may exist in Provo River. Synonymies of the suckers that have been collected in Provo River and ?Cottonwood Creek? are provided. A comparison of their morphologies shows several distinctions. There is a need for further systematic (including up-to-date biochemical) analyses of these catostomids. Published in American Midland Naturalist, volume 143, issue 2, on pages 422 - 432, in 2000.
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We revised distribution maps of potential presettlement habitat and current populations for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and Gunnison Sage-Grouse (C. minimus) in North America. The revised map of potential presettlement habitat included some areas omitted from previously published maps such as the San Luis Valley of Colorado and Jackson area of Wyoming. Areas excluded from the revised maps were those dominated by barren, alpine, and forest habitats. The resulting presettlement distribution of potential habitat for Greater Sage-Grouse encompassed 1 200 483 km(2), With the species' current range 668 412 km(2). The distribution of potential Gunnison Sage-Grouse habitat encompassed 46 521 km(2), with...
A science agenda for the Greater Yellowstone Area: Responding to landscape impacts from climate change, land use change, and invasive species, credited to Bischke, S., published in 2010. Published in Yellowstone Science, volume 18, on pages 14 - 22, in 2010.
Areas occupied by white-tailed prairie dogs (WTPD; Cynomys leucurus) and Gunnison's prairie dogs (GPD; C. gunnisoni) are not well-known in Colorado (USA) and elsewhere. Suitable methodology for monitoring changes in populations of WTPD and GPD over broad areas also has not been well established. We evaluated occupancy modeling methodology to establish baseline occupancy rates for WTPD and GPD in Colorado. We estimated that WTPD occupied 24.1% (SE = 12.8) of 47,710 0.25-km2 plots and GPD occupied 7.5% (SE = 1.3) of 158,225 0.25-km2 plots in Colorado during 2004 and 2005. Areas reported as colonies in the Colorado Division of Wildlife's database were not good predictors of WTPD and GPD occupancy. Occupancy rates were...
We report the first simultaneous measurements of ?15N and ?13C of DNA extracted from surface soils. The isotopic composition of DNA differed significantly among nine different soils. The ?13C and ?15N of DNA was correlated with ?13C and ?15N of soil, respectively, suggesting that the isotopic composition of DNA is strongly influenced by the isotopic composition of soil organic matter. However, in all samples DNA was enriched in 13C relative to soil, indicating microorganisms fractionated C during assimilation or preferentially used 13C enriched substrates. Enrichment of DNA in 15N relative to soil was not consistently observed, but there were significant differences between ?15N of DNA and ?15N of soil for three...
Seasonal snowpack chemistry data from the Rocky Mountain region of the US was examined to identify long-term trends in concentration and chemical deposition in snow and in snow-water equivalent. For the period 1993?2004, comparisons of trends were made between 54 Rocky Mountain Snowpack sites and 16 National Atmospheric Deposition Program wetfall sites located nearby in the region. The region was divided into three subregions: Northern, Central, and Southern. A non-parametric correlation method known as the Regional Kendall Test was used. This technique collectively computed the slope, direction, and probability of trend for several sites at once in each of the Northern, Central, and Southern Rockies subregions....
Operations including borehole fluid injections are typical for exploration and development of hydrocarbon or geothermic reservoirs. Microseismicity occurring during such operations has a large potential for understanding physics of the seismogenic process as well as in obtaining detailed information about reservoirs at locations as far as several kilometers from boreholes. We propose that the phenomenon of microseismicity triggering by borehole fluid injections is related to the process of the Frenkel-Biot slow wave propagation. In the low-frequency range (hours or days of fluid injection durations) this process reduces to the pore-pressure diffusion. We search for diffusion-related features of induced micro seismicity....


map background search result map search result map Distribution of Sage-Grouse in North America Distribution of Sage-Grouse in North America